Preventative measures: A Risk Assessment of Ardisia crenata for Hawaii and other Pacific islands was prepared by Dr. Curtis Daehler (UH Botany) with funding from the Kaulunani Urban Forestry Program and US Forest Service. The result is a score of 7 and a recommendation of: "reject the plant for import (Australia) or species likely to be of high risk (Pacific)."
Management areas should be closely monitored for presence and frequency of Ardisia crenata. It should be subject to inter-island quarantine or banned from importation to non-native locations. A. Crenata is already barred from importation into French Polynesia (Space and Flynn, 2002). Eradication is most effective when performed within first 1 to 2 years of presence before seed production begins (Langeland, 2007).
Physical: Hand pulling seedlings is effective where soil disturbance is acceptable (PIER, 2007).
Chemical: Chemical application of glyphosphate can be used on dense populations while larger, individual specimens may be cut down and stumps treated with herbicide or treated with a basal application of triclopyr. Suppresion may be accomplished through complete foliar applications of 5% v/v of Garlon 4 or Remedy. Garlon 4 or Remedy can be applied to the basal bark in an 18% v/v solution, applying no more than 8 quarts per acre and/or less than 10% of total grazed area when applying more than 2 quarts per acre. Always follow labeling instructions when applying herbicides (PIER, 2007; Sellers, 2007).
Location Specific Management Information
Ardisia crenata should be subject to inter-island quarantine, and eradicated if possible (Space and Flynn, 2002).
1. Kitajima, K. and Fox, A. M. and Sato, T. and Nagamatsu, D. 2006. Cultivar selection prior to introduction may increase invasiveness: evidence from Ardisia crenata. Biological Invasions: Volume 8, Number 7, October 2006, pp. 1471-1482.
Summary: This article is an interesting look into the phenotypic and genotypic differences between specimens of Ardisia crenata found within its native range in Japan versus specimens found as invasives in north central Florida. The article concludes that traits chosen for the ornamental cultivar of A. crenata commonly found in Florida contribute to its pervasiveness as an invasive species.
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