預防措施：太平洋螞蟻預防計劃 是一份由太平洋植物保護組織與地區技術會議提議的植物保護計畫。計劃從在裡面建立打算用經濟、環境或社會的衝擊避免入侵紅火蟻螞蟻與其他侵入的螞蟻物種, 或傳佈在,之間在太平洋的國家。
請參閱Linepithema humile 被作為 " 侵入螞蟻風險評估計畫 " 的一部份的資料頁, Harriset al。2005個 ., 為紐西蘭土地保護研究計畫的生物安全 。
哈脫來 et al.(2006)仿製可能者將來類型的阿根廷螞蟻。他們發現出現是最有可能冬季日均溫是7-14 °C，夏季最高日均溫是 19-30°C。尚未被入侵，未來極可能會被侵入的區域包括：中國南部、台灣、辛巴威, 中央的馬達加斯加、摩洛哥、高海拔衣索比亞、葉門與一些大洋性島嶼。
綜合管理：在人為生態系中，入侵螞蟻達到高密度的潛能更大， 特別地在土地強烈地為初期的生產利用。舉例來說, L. humile在農業的系統、例如柑橘類果園中達成高度密度, 那個主人 Homopteran 蜂蜜-生產露珠的昆蟲.(Armbrecht 與 Ulloa-Chacon 2003; Holway et al.2002a)改良的土地管理,在單一栽培與初期生產的效率的增加方面包括減少, 可能幫助避免螞蟻人口爆炸,減輕被引起螞蟻的高度密度而且減少螞蟻群襲的來源的問題。
請按此連結取得更多資訊 阿根廷螞蟻 的管理阿根廷蟻(Linepithema humile) ISSG 彙編。
1. AntWeb, 2006. Linepithema humile
摘要： AntWeb illustrates ant diversity by providing information and high quality color images of many of the approximately 10,000 known species of ants. AntWeb currently focusses on the species of the Nearctic and Malagasy biogeographic regions, and the ant genera of the world. Over time, the site is expected to grow to describe every species of ant known. AntWeb provides the following tools: Search tools, Regional Lists, In-depth information, Ant Image comparision tool PDF field guides maps on AntWeb and Google Earth and Ant genera of the world slide show.
AntWeb is available from: http://antweb.org/about.jsp [Accessed 20 April 2006]
The species page is available from: http://antweb.org/getComparison.do?rank=species&genus=linepithema&name=humile&project=&project= [Accessed 2 May 2006]
2. Commonwealth of Australia. 2006a. Threat abatement plan to reduce the impacts of tramp ants on biodiversity in Australia and its
territories, Department of the Environment and Heritage,
摘要： This plan establishes a national framework to guide and coordinate Australia’s response to tramp ants, identifying the research, management, and other actions necessary to ensure the long term survival of native species and ecological communities affected by tramp ants. It identifies
six national priority species as an initial, but
flexible, list on which to focus attention. They
are the red imported fi re ant (Solenopsis invicta),
tropical fire ant (S. geminata), little fire ant
(Wasmannia auropunctata), African big-headed
ant (Pheidole megacephala), yellow crazy ant
(Anoplolepis gracilipes), and Argentine ant
Available from: http://www.environment.gov.au/biodiversity/threatened/publications/tap/pubs/tramp-ants.pdf [Accessed 17 November 2009]
4. Department of the Environment and Heritage (DEH), 2005. Draft Threat Abatement Plan for for Reduction in Impacts of Tramp Ants on Biodiversity in Australia and its Territories
5. Forschler, B. T. and Evans, G. M. 1994. Argentine ant (Hymenoptera: Formicidae) foraging activity response to selected containerized baits. J. Entomol. Sci. 29(2): 209-214.
摘要： Found that baits formulated with hydramethylnon or sulfluramid were effective in eliminating foraging ants in an urban setting.
6. Green, C. 2005. Argentine ant update, Dawn Chorus 60: 8. Supporters of Tiritiri Matangi.
7. Haney, P. 1984. A different approach to the Argentine ant problem. Citrograph 69(6): 140-146.
摘要： Provides a brief review of historical chemical approaches to Argentine ant control in agriculture, and presents results for liquid Diazinon and Lorsban spray treatments of citrus trees.
9. Harris, R.; Abbott, K.; Barton, K.; Berry, J.; Don, W.; Gunawardana, D.; Lester, P.; Rees, J.; Stanley, M.; Sutherland, A.; Toft, R. 2005: Invasive ant pest risk assessment project for Biosecurity New Zealand. Series of unpublished Landcare Research contract reports to Biosecurity New Zealand. BAH/35/2004-1.
摘要： The invasive ant risk assessment project, prepared for Biosecurity New Zealand by Landcare Research, synthesises information on the ant species that occur in New Zealand (native and introduced species), and on invasive ants that pose a potential threat to New Zealand.
There is a great deal of information in this risk assessment on invasive ant species that is of global interest, including; biology, distribution, pest status, control technologies.
The assessment project has five sections.1) The Ants of New Zealand: information sheets on all native and introduced ants established in New Zealand
2) Preliminary invasive ant risk assessment: risk scorecard to quantify the threat to New Zealand of 75 ant species.
3) Information sheets on invasive ant threats: information sheets on all ant species scored as medium to high risk (n = 39).
4) Pest risk assessment: A detailed pest risk assessment for the eight species ranked as having the highest potential risk to New Zealand (Anoplolepis gracilipes, Lasius neglectus, Monomorium destructor, Paratrechina longicornis, Solenopsis geminata, Solenopsis richteri, Tapinoma melanocephalum, Wasmannia auropunctata)
5) Ranking of high risk species: ranking of the eight highest risk ant species in terms of the risks of entry, establishment, spread, and detrimental consequences.
NB. The red imported fire ant (Solenopsis invicta) is considered to be the worst ant pest in the world. However, Solenopsis invicta was specifically excluded from consideration in this risk assessment as this species has already been subject to detailed consideration by Biosecurity New Zealand
(This invasive ant pest risk assessment was funded by Biosecurity New Zealand and Foundation for Research, Science and Technology. Undertaken by Landcare Research in collaboration with Victoria University of Wellington and Otago Museum)
http://www.landcareresearch.co.nz/research/biocons/invertebrates/Ants/ant_pest_risk.asp [Accessed 20 May 2007]
11. Hartley, Stephen, Harris, Richard & Lester, Philip J., 2006. Quantifying uncertainty in the potential distribution of an invasive species: climate and the Argentine ant. Ecology Letters 9 (9), 1068-1079.
13. Holway, D.A., Lach, L., Suarez, A.V., Tsutsui, N.D. and Case, T.J. 2002a. The Causes and Consequences of Ant Invasions, Annu. Rev. Ecol. Syst. 33: 181-233.
14. Hooper, L. M. 1995. The biology of the Southern Fire Ant, Solenopsis xyloni (McCook) and its predation of the California Least Tern, Sterna antillarum browni (Mearns). MSc Thesis, University of California Riverside.
摘要： Masters thesis dealing primarily with Solenopsis xyloni, but also makes some references to Linepithema humile.
15. Hooper-Bui, L. and Rust, M. K. 2000. Oral toxicity of abamectin, boric acid, fipronil, and hydramethylnon to laboratory colonies of Argentine ants (Hymenoptera: Formicidae). Economic Entomology 93(3): 858-864.
摘要： Conducted laboratory tests of the effectiveness of four toxicants against the Argentine ant.
17. Krushelnycky, P. D. and Reimer, N. J. 1998. Bait preference by the Argentine ant (Hymenoptera: Formicidae) in Haleakala National Park, Maui, Hawaii. Environmental Entomology 27: 1482-1487.
摘要： A year-long study determining the seasonal preferences of baits that could potentially be used in control efforts.
18. Krushelnycky, P. D. and Reimer, N. J. 1998. Efficacy of Maxforce bait for control of the Argentine ant (Hymenoptera: Formicidae) in Haleakala National Park, Maui, Hawaii. Environmental Entomology 27: 1473-1481.
摘要： An initial attempt to eradicate Argentine ants from test plots in Haleakala National Park, using standard Maxforce bait as well as new bait varieties formulated with hydramethylnon. Was unsuccessful in achieving eradication.
20. Krushelnycky, P.D., Loope, L.L. and Joe, S.M. 2004. Limiting spread of a unicolonial invasive insect and characterization of seasonal patterns of range expansion, Biological Invasions 6: 47–57.
21. McGlynn, T.P. 1999. The Worldwide Transfer of Ants: Geographical Distribution and Ecological Invasions, Journal of Biogeography 26(3): 535-548.
22. Ness, J. H and Bronstein, J. L. 2004. The Effects of Invasive Ants on Prospective ant Mutualists, Biological Invasions 6: 445-461.
24. O’Dowd, D.J., Green, P.T. and Lake, P.S. 1999. Status, Impact, and Recommendations for Research and Management of Exotic Invasive Ants in Christmas Island National Park. Centre for the Analysis and Management of Biological Invasions: Clayton (Victoria, Australia).
26. Sarnat, E. M. (December 4, 2008) PIAkey: Identification guide to ants of the Pacific Islands, Edition 2.0, Lucid v. 3.4. USDA/APHIS/PPQ Center for Plant Health Science and Technology and University of California — Davis.
摘要： PIAkey (Pacific Invasive Ant key) is an electronic guide designed to assist users identify invasive ant species commonly encountered in the Pacific Island region. The guide covers four subfamilies, 20 genera and 44 species.
The primary tool offered by PIAkey is an interactive key designed using Lucid3 software. In addition to being fully illustrated, the Lucid key allows users to enter at multiple character points, skip unknown characters, and find the most efficient path for identifying the available taxa. Each species is linked to its own web page. These species pages, or factsheets, are linked to an illustrated glossary of morphological terms, and include the following seven sections: 1) Overview of the species; 2) Diagnostic chart illustrating a unique combination of identification characters; 3) Comparison chart illustrating differences among species of similar appearance; 4) Video clip of the species behavior at food baits (where available); 5) Image gallery that includes original specimen images and live images (where available); 6) Nomenclature section detailing the taxonomic history of the species, and 7) Links and references section for additional literature and online resources.
Available from: http://www.lucidcentral.org/keys/v3/PIAkey/index.html [Accessed 17 December 2008]
29. Tsutsui, N.D. and Suarez, A.V. 2003. The Colony Structure and Population Biology of Invasive Ants, Conservation Biology 17(1): 48-58.
30. van Schagen, J. J., Davis, P. R. and Widner, M. A. 1994. Ant pests of Western Australia, with particular reference to the Argentine ant (Linepithema humile). In Williams, D. F. (ed.) Exotic Ants: Biology, Impact and Control of Introduced Species: 174-180.
摘要： Reports on effort to eradicate the Argentine ant in Western Australia.
32. Walker, K. 2006. Argentine ant (Linepithema humile) Pest and Diseases Image Library. Updated on 29/08/2006 12:06:40 PM.
摘要： PaDIL (Pests and Diseases Image Library) is a Commonwealth Government initiative, developed and built by Museum Victoria's Online Publishing Team, with support provided by DAFF (Department of Agriculture, Fisheries and Forestry) and PHA (Plant Health Australia), a non-profit public company. Project partners also include Museum Victoria, the Western Australian Department of Agriculture and the Queensland University of Technology.
The aim of the project is: 1) Production of high quality images showing primarily exotic targeted organisms of plant health concern to Australia. 2) Assist with plant health diagnostics in all areas, from initial to high level. 3) Capacity building for diagnostics in plant health, including linkage developments between training and research organisations. 4) Create and use educational tools for training undergraduates/postgraduates. 5) Engender public awareness about plant health concerns in Australia.
PaDIL is available from : http://www.padil.gov.au/aboutOverview.aspx, this page is available from: http://www.padil.gov.au/viewPestDiagnosticImages.aspx?id=615 [Accessed 6 October 2006]