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   Falcataria moluccana (tree)  français     
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         Interim profile, incomplete information
         Management Information

    Preventative measures: A Risk Assessment of Falcataria moluccana produced a high score of 8 and a recommendation of: "reject the plant for import (Australia) or species likely to be of high risk (Pacific)." (PIER, 2005). This species is also listed on the Hawaii state Noxious Weed List (Ostertag et al., 2009).

    Cultural control: The planting of F. moluccana is discouraged in many regions; both where it is a known invasive and where further research is required to determine its impact (e.g Space & Flynn, 2000b; Space et al., 2003; Space et al., 2004; Space et al., 2009). In Hawaii, Starr et al. (2003) recommend asking public not to spread trees and to instead plant alternatives such as native koa (Acacia koa).

    Manual control: Girdling (ring-barking) of F. moluccana in the sapling stage may be a cost-effective control measure (Mueller-Dombois, 2008). It is relatively easy to achieve and tends to be successful (Gerlach, 2004). Uprooting seedlings and saplings, followed by chemical control can also be effective (Meyer, 2008). F. moluccana is also reportedly susceptible to being killed by root damage by heavy equipment (Motooka et al., 2003).

    Chemical control: F. moluccana is very susceptible to hormone-type herbicides. 2,4-D and glyphosate cause severe injury, while dicamba and tricoplyr are even more effective. Herbicides may be applied by injecting into the trunks of trees, or as a spray on the trunk after debarking (Motooka et al., 2003; Meyer, 2008).

    Integrated management: Trees can be removed by hand or using saws, and stumps treated with a triclopyr-based herbicide to prevent resprouting (Ostertag et al., 2009). Ostertag et al., (2009) carried out removal experiments in Hawaii to determine native species’ response to the removal of all invasive trees and shrubs from plots. While there were major environmental changes in removal plots, native species growth and litterfall productivity did not change over three years, confirming the slow growth response capabilities of Hawaiian trees. However with continued removal of invasive species, it may be possible to alter the seedbank enough to encourage native regeneration (Cordell et al., 2009). Cordell et al. (2009) recommend non-native species removal to encourage natural regeneration, with supplemental native species planting as an additional strategy. Follow-up removal is essential to success (Cordell et al., 2009). In reality, treating and sustaining such removal plots to control invasive species is highly labour intensive, and may not be feasible at a regional scale (Ostertag et al., 2008).

    Other: Recently F. moluccana has been approved for use as a biofuel, to generate electricity on the Hawaiian island of Kauai (Eagle, 2008; Chimera et al., 2010). The president of the project states that “the project will reduce the overall amount of albizia on island and positively benefit the community”. However in order to fulfill the wood requirements, an additional 2000 acres of F. moluccana would be necessary. However Chimera et al. (2010) list a number of reasons why this is unlikely to result in effective control of the invasive tree, and will most likely lead to it being more widely planted and greater spread.



         Location Specific Management Information
    Aitutaki Is.
    Recommendations for management on the Cook Islands are to "Control locally and in sensitive or natural areas" (Space & Flynn, 2002a).
    American Samoa
    American Samoa Invasive Species Task Force (ASSIST) includes researchers, management specialists, and concerned citizens and was formed in 2002 to address concerns about invasive species management. The current invasive species management programmes are currently confined to the eradication of Falcataria moluccana (Molucca albizia) and cinnamon (Cinnamomum verum) from within the National Park of American Samoa (NPAS) boundaries on Tutuila (Hanson, 2004).
    Atiu (`Atiu) Is.
    Recommendations for management on the Cook Islands are to "Control locally and in sensitive or natural areas" (Space & Flynn, 2002a).
    Babeldaob Is.
    Recently long-term monitoring plots have been set up to understand the impacts of F.moluccana invasion, and native forest recovering following the removal of this invasive tree. The newly discovered, isolated F. moluccana populations in the States of Melekeok and Airai should be prioritized for eradication (T. Togia, unpublished report 2010).

    Other recommendations include the discouragement of further planting until more is known about the species in Palau, and control in sensitive and natural areas as needed (Space et al., 2003). Where feasible, isolated trees may be removed. Space et al. (2009) state that “Palau should request technical assistance from the US Forest Service for evaluation, and if control is desired, request technical assistance from the National Park of American Samoa through the PILN. The wood of these trees is extremely brittle and, if near homes or other habitation, professional arborists are needed to fell these trees.”

    Eua Is.
    Further planting of F. moluccana should be discouraged, especially near natural or sensitive areas (Space & Flynn, 2001).
    French Polynesia
    Decree No. 65 CM of January 23, 2006 presents a list of 35 invasive plants declared to be "Species that threaten biodiversity", one of which is Falcataria moluccana. These plants are subject to a ban on new imports, propagation and planting, and prohibition of transfer from one island to another of any whole plant, fragment of plant, cutting, fruit or seed. Their destruction is permitted.
    Hawaii
    Preventative measures: A Risk Assessment of Falcataria moluccana produced a high score of 8 and a recommendation of: "reject the plant for import (Australia) or species likely to be of high risk (Pacific)." (PIER, 2005). This species is also listed on the Hawaii state Noxious Weed List (Ostertag et al., 2009).

    Cultural control: The planting of F. moluccana is discouraged in many regions; both where it is a known invasive and where further research is required to determine its impact (e.g Space & Flynn, 2000b; Space et al., 2003; Space et al., 2004; Space et al., 2009). In Hawaii, Starr et al. (2003) recommend asking public not to spread trees and to instead plant alternatives such as native koa (Acacia koa).

    Manual control: Girdling (ring-barking) of F. moluccana in the sapling stage may be a cost-effective control measure (Mueller-Dombois, 2008). It is relatively easy to achieve and tends to be successful (Gerlach, 2004). Uprooting seedlings and saplings, followed by chemical control can also be effective (Meyer, 2008). F. moluccana is also reportedly susceptible to being killed by root damage by heavy equipment (Motooka et al., 2003).

    Chemical control: F. moluccana is very susceptible to hormone-type herbicides. 2,4-D and glyphosate cause severe injury, while dicamba and tricoplyr are even more effective. Herbicides may be applied by injecting into the trunks of trees, or as a spray on the trunk after debarking (Motooka et al., 2003; Meyer, 2008). Integrated management: Trees can be removed by hand or using saws, and stumps treated with a triclopyr-based herbicide to prevent resprouting (Ostertag et al., 2009). Ostertag et al., (2009) carried out removal experiments in Hawaii to determine native species’ response to the removal of all invasive trees and shrubs from plots. While there were major environmental changes in removal plots, native species growth and litterfall productivity did not change over three years, confirming the slow growth response capabilities of Hawaiian trees. However with continued removal of invasive species, it may be possible to alter the seedbank enough to encourage native regeneration (Cordell et al., 2009). Cordell et al. (2009) recommend non-native species removal to encourage natural regeneration, with supplemental native species planting as an additional strategy. Follow-up removal is essential to success (Cordell et al., 2009). In reality, treating and sustaining such removal plots to control invasive species is highly labour intensive, and may not be feasible at a regional scale (Ostertag et al., 2008).

    Other: Recently F. moluccana has been approved for use as a biofuel, to generate electricity on the Hawaiian island of Kauai (Eagle, 2008; Chimera et al., 2010). The president of the project states that “the project will reduce the overall amount of albizia on island and positively benefit the community”. However in order to fulfill the wood requirements, an additional 2000 acres of F. moluccana would be necessary. However Chimera et al. (2010) list a number of reasons why this is unlikely to result in effective control of the invasive tree, and will most likely lead to it being more widely planted and greater spread.

    Koror Is.
    Recently long-term monitoring plots have been set up to understand the impacts of F.moluccana invasion, and native forest recovering following the removal of this invasive tree. The newly discovered, isolated F. moluccana populations in the States of Melekeok and Airai should be prioritized for eradication (T. Togia, unpublished report 2010).

    Other recommendations include the discouragement of further planting until more is known about the species in Palau, and control in sensitive and natural areas as needed (Space et al., 2003). Where feasible, isolated trees may be removed. Space et al. (2009) state that “Palau should request technical assistance from the US Forest Service for evaluation, and if control is desired, request technical assistance from the National Park of American Samoa through the PILN. The wood of these trees is extremely brittle and, if near homes or other habitation, professional arborists are needed to fell these trees.”

    Mangaia Is.
    Recommendations for management on the Cook Islands are to "Control locally and in sensitive or natural areas" (Space & Flynn, 2002a).
    Ma'uke Is.
    Recommendations for management on the Cook Islands are to "Control locally and in sensitive or natural areas" (Space & Flynn, 2002a).
    Niue
    Falcataria moluccana reproduction and spread should be monitored. Control in sensitive and natural areas as needed. Further planting of this tree should be discouraged (Space & Flynn, 2000b; Space et al., 2004).
    Palau
    Recently long-term monitoring plots have been set up to understand the impacts of F.moluccana invasion, and native forest recovering following the removal of this invasive tree. The newly discovered, isolated F. moluccana populations in the States of Melekeok and Airai should be prioritized for eradication (T. Togia, unpublished report 2010).

    Other recommendations include the discouragement of further planting until more is known about the species in Palau, and control in sensitive and natural areas as needed (Space et al., 2003). Where feasible, isolated trees may be removed. Space et al. (2009) state that “Palau should request technical assistance from the US Forest Service for evaluation, and if control is desired, request technical assistance from the National Park of American Samoa through the PILN. The wood of these trees is extremely brittle and, if near homes or other habitation, professional arborists are needed to fell these trees.”

    Rarotonga Is.
    Recommendations for management on the Cook Islands are to "Control locally and in sensitive or natural areas" (Space & Flynn, 2002a).
    Saipan Is.
    Introduction of this tree should be discouraged, and special measures taken to keep it out of the Northern Marianas. Monitoring should occur, followed by immediate eradication if found. Other recommendations include warning posters to alert the public and encouragement of reporting introductions (Space et al., 2000c).
    Samoa
    Falcataria moluccana is likely to invade widely in Samoa over time. Control is recommended in sensitive and natural areas (Space & Flynn, 2002b).
    Savai`i Is.
    Falcataria moluccana is likely to invade widely in Samoa over time. Control is recommended in sensitive and natural areas (Space & Flynn, 2002b).
    Tinian Is.
    Introduction of this tree should be discouraged, and special measures taken to keep it out of the Northern Marianas. Monitoring should occur, followed by immediate eradication if found. Other recommendations include warning posters to alert the public and encouragement of reporting introductions (Space et al., 2000c).
    Tonga
    Further planting of F. moluccana should be discouraged, especially near natural or sensitive areas (Space & Flynn, 2001).
    Tutuila Is.
    American Samoa Invasive Species Task Force (ASSIST) includes researchers, management specialists, and concerned citizens and was formed in 2002 to address concerns about invasive species management. The current invasive species management programmes are currently confined to the eradication of Falcataria moluccana (Molucca albizia) and cinnamon (Cinnamomum verum) from within the National Park of American Samoa (NPAS) boundaries on Tutuila (Hanson, 2004).
    Upolu Is.
    Falcataria moluccana is likely to invade widely in Samoa over time. Control is recommended in sensitive and natural areas (Space & Flynn, 2002b).
    Vava'u Is.
    Further planting of F. moluccana should be discouraged, especially near natural or sensitive areas (Space & Flynn, 2001).
    Weno Is.
    Planting of F. moluccana should be discouraged in The Federated States of Micronesia, particularly on islands or in areas where it is not yet present (Space et al., 2000a).


         Management Resources/Links

    1. Chimera G. Charles, Christopher E Buddenhagen & Patti M Clifford, 2010. Biofuels: the risks and dangers of introducing invasive species Biofuels (2010) 1(5), 785–796
    2. Hanson D. Eric, 2004. ASSIST: Development of the American Samoa Selected Invasive Species Task Force. Weed Technology, 18(sp1):1334-1337. 2004.
    6. Ostertag, Rebecca; Cordell, Susan; Michaud, Jene; Cole, T. Colleen; Schulten, Jodie R.; Publico, Keiko M.; Enoka, Jaime H., 2009. Ecosystem and Restoration Consequences of Invasive Woody Species Removal in Hawaiian Lowland Wet Forest. Ecosystems. 12(3). APR 2009. 503-515.

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ISSG Landcare Research NBII IUCN University of Auckland