Preventative measures: Transport in ballast water is thought to be the main vector of introduction for Rhithropanopeus harrisii. The GloBallast Programme has been established to reduce introductions of non-native species (such as R. harrisii) by providing funding and assistance to less-industrialized countries in order to reduce the transfer of harmful aquatic organisms and pathogens in the ballast water of ships. Implemented by the International Maritime Organization (IMO) with funding by the Global Environment Facility (GEF) and the United Nations Development Program (UNDP), this programme will facilitate the implementation of the newly adopted IMO Ballast Water Convention in developing countries (GloBallast, undated).
Chemical: Diflubezuron, the active chemical in the pesticide Dimilin, has been experimentally used on R. harrisii (see McEnnulty et al., 2001). It is lethal to hatching larvae in concentrations of 7-10ppb. It works by inhibiting chitin synthesis and has been found to be an effective way of controlling arthropods. However, it lacks specificity and may take several weeks to degrade in brackish water environments (Christiansen and Costlow 1980).
Biological: The rhizocephalan barnacle Loxothylacus panopaei parasitizes R. harrisii in its native range. Parasitic barnacles infect their crab hosts at the larval stage (cyprid or cypris larva), develop as an endoparasite, and then produce an external reproductive body called the externa. Rhizocephalans stunt growth in their hosts and cause castration in both males and females, preventing future reproduction. Alvarez et al. (1995) experimentally infected R. harrisii from the Chesapeake Bay with L. panopaei and found that parasitism had a significant effect on the survival of infected hosts. However, further studies are necessary to determine whether L. panopei is a viable candidate for biological control of R. harrisii in its introduced range.
Location Specific Management Information
The current containment of R. harrisii within two brackish water lakes adjacent to the Canal suggests that a localized eradication may be possible (Roche et al., in prep.).
1. Alvarez, F., Hines, A.H., and Reaka-Kulda, M.L. 1995. The effects of parasitism by the barnacle Loxothylacus panopaei(Gissler) (Cirripedia: Rhizocephala) on growth and the survival of the host crab Rhithropanopeus harrisii (Gould) (Brachyura: Xanthidae). Journal of Experimental Marine Biology and Ecology. Vol. 192: 221-232.
Summary: This study consists of infection experiments in the laboratory to test the effects of the the barnacle parasite Loxothylacus panopaei on its host, Rhithropanopeus harrisii, from the Chesapeake Bay.
2. Carlton J.T 1985. Transoceanic and interoceanic dispersal of coastal marine organisms: the biology of ballast water. Oceanography and Marine Biology. An Annual Review 23: 313-371
3. Carlton J.T and Geller J.B 1993. Ecological roulette - the global transport of nonindigenous marine organisms. Science 261: 78-82
4. Centre for Environment, Fisheries & Aquaculture Science (CEFAS)., 2008. Decision support tools-Identifying potentially invasive non-native marine and freshwater species: fish, invertebrates, amphibians.
Summary: The electronic tool kits made available on the Cefas page for free download are Crown Copyright (2007-2008). As such, these are freeware and may be freely distributed provided this notice is retained. No warranty, expressed or implied, is made and users should satisfy themselves as to the applicability of the results in any given circumstance. Toolkits available include 1) FISK- Freshwater Fish Invasiveness Scoring Kit (English and Spanish language version); 2) MFISK- Marine Fish Invasiveness Scoring Kit; 3) MI-ISK- Marine invertebrate Invasiveness Scoring Kit; 4) FI-ISK- Freshwater Invertebrate Invasiveness Scoring Kit and AmphISK- Amphibian Invasiveness Scoring Kit. These tool kits were developed by Cefas, with new VisualBasic and computational programming by Lorenzo Vilizzi, David Cooper, Andy South and Gordon H. Copp, based on VisualBasic code in the original Weed Risk Assessment (WRA) tool kit of P.C. Pheloung, P.A. Williams & S.R. Halloy (1999).
The decision support tools are available from: http://cefas.defra.gov.uk/our-science/ecosystems-and-biodiversity/non-native-species/decision-support-tools.aspx [Accessed 13 October 2011]
The guidance document is available from http://www.cefas.co.uk/media/118009/fisk_guide_v2.pdf [Accessed 13 January 2009].
5. Global Ballast Water Management Programme, undated. GloBallast Programme.
Summary: This websites outlines the directives of a program with the objectives of promoting the “Removal of Barriers to the Effective Implementation of Ballast Water Control and Management Measures in Developing Countries”
Available from: http://globallast.imo.org/index.asp?page=gef_interw_project.htm&menu=true [Accessed 10 December 2007]
Results Page: 1