Preventative measures: Sirex noctilio is a high risk invasive species and many actions have been taken to prevent its spread. Restrictions on the movement of timber and firewood have been imposed in most invasive ranges. The USDA APHIS (Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service) inspectors remain vigilant and have successfully intercepted foreign siricids in international US ports on over 100 occassions. APHIS also has a Plant Protection and Quarantine (PPQ) division which is working hard to prevent further spread in the US by informing the public and wood industry and conducting extensive trapping surveys.
In 2002, United Nation FAO's (Food and Agriculture Organization) Interim Commission on Phytosanitary Measures imposed a global standard for treating wood packaging International Standard for Phytosanitary Measures No. 15 to stop the spread of invasives including S.noctilio. Although, implementation has proven difficult. Similarily, New York State the Department of Conservation has imposed recommended treatment protocols for all wood products over 2.5cm thick. Silvicultural management is another important means of preventing S. noctilio infestation. Since, the Sirex woodwasp attacks stressed trees, healthy and vigorous trees properly maintained by good silviculture practice, including routine survelliance, pruning, and appropriate watering and spacing of trees, will assist in preventing new infestations and to control present populations. Recently, aerial multispecteral imagaing technology has been employed to detect infected trees in large pine plantations of KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa. Another use of technology employs computer modeling by programs like CLIMEX to render a predictive modeling of potential invasive ranges (Hoebeke, 2005; NAPPO, 2007; Keiran, 2005; NYSDEC, 2006; Fernandez-Ahrex, 2005; Ismail, 2007; Carnegie, 2006).
Biological: Biological control agents have been the most popular and successful means of managing Sirex noctilio. Many species of parasitic wasps have been employed including: Megarhyssa nortoni, Rhyssa persuasoria, Rhyssa hoferi, Ibalia leucospoides, and Schlettererius cinctipes. Of these M. nortoni, R. persuasoria, and I. leucospoides have been the most effective, employed in New Zealand, Australia, South America, and South Africa. These wasps find S. noctilio larvae, then bore into the tree, paralyze them, and deposit their eggs on them. Sirex larvae are then consumed by the newly hatched parasite larvae. However, the most effective means of control has been from parasitic nematode Deladenus siricidicola (also =Beddingia ). This nematode has an almost perfectly designed life cycle to control Sirex woodwasps. Its first stage feeds on fungus Amylostereum areolatum while the second invades the larvae collecting in their reproductive organs. Females are sterilized while males spread the nematode further. This agent has been successful in South America, South Africa, Australia, and especially New Zealand in which few S. noctilio remain. The US is currently in experimental phases of introduction. The nematode may be raised in laboratory conditions and trees are inoculated with a gel medium in which they are suspended (Hurley, 2007; Haugen, 2005; Hocking, 1968; Bain, 2005; Bedding, 1974; SSPR, 2006).
Location Specific Management Information
Ibalia leucospoides spread to Argentina from Uruguay and its parasitism rates on Sirex noctilio here are between 20-40%. Deladenus siricidicola was intentionally imported as a control. Quarantine measures in timber movement in South America were also effective (Hurley, 2007)
Australian Capital Territory
Quarantine restrictions in Australia on the movement of pine timber to areas uninfested with Sirex noctilio played an important role in containment (Hurley, 2007).
Ibalia leucospoides spread to Brazil from Uruguay and its parasitism rates on Sirex noctilio are about 25% on average here. Megarhyssa nortoni and Rhyssa persuasoria were imported to Brazil in 1996 and 1999. Nematode parasite Deladenus siricidicola was imported into Brazil in 1989. Parasitism rates on S. noctilio have varied, some as high as 80% and some as low as 19%. Quarantine measures in timber movement in South America were also effective (Hurley, 2007).
Ibalia leucospoides spread to Chile from Uruguay establishing itself as a Sirex noctilio parasite. Deladenus siricidicola was intentionally imported as a control. Quarantine measures in timber movement in South America were also effective (Hurley, 2007).
New South Wales
Parasitc wasps Megarhyssa nortoni and Ibalia leucospoides were introduced with moderate success in controlling Sirex noctilio. Also, quarantine restrictions in Australia on the movement of pine timber to uninfested areas played an important role in containment (Hurley, 2007).
Quarantine restrictions on wood movement have been placed in effect by the New York State Department of Environmental Conservation (NYSDEM) and APHIS. Aerial surveys, ground surveys and trapping has been conducted using Lindgren traps in order to survey infestation. The USDA APHIS and Forest Service have commited $1.4 million to survey, research, and outreach in New York, Pennsylvania, and Vermont. Treatment of imported and exported wood by heat, methyl bromide, chemical impregnation, or by chipping is recommended. Research phases in the use of Deladenus siricidicola as a biological control for Sirex noctilio are in underway (NYSDEC, 2006; SSPR, 2006).
Since New Zealand was one of the Sirex noctilio's first invasive ranges it proved to be a testing ground of several management techniques. In 1928 Rhyssa persuasoria, a parasite ichneumon wasp which oviposits upon wood wasp larvae thus parasitizing them, was introduced from Europe and found to be moderately effective. In 1950 another parasite which infects larvae, Ibalia leucospoides was introduced from England. It was also only moderately effective. In 1962 Megarhyssa nortoni, similar to R. persuasoria, was introduced from the US. These parasites established themselves and were fairly effective. However, it was nematode Deladenus siricidicola that migrated along with S. noctilio that was most effective in reducing their populations. It is an exceptional control in that one form infects S. noctilio larvae eventually sterilizing females and its earlier form feeds on its symbiote fungus Amylostereum areolatum. Additionally, silviculture is an important factor in protecting trees and reducing Sirex populations in New Zealand. Since healthy and vigorous trees are not parasitized, routine surveillance and silvicultural management protects trees from infestation (Bain, 2005; Bedding, 1974, Hurley, 2007; Hocking, 1968; Fernandez-Arhex, 2005).
In response to the presence of Sirex noctilio in Ontario, the Canadian Food Inspection Agency, Canadian forest Service, and Ontario Ministry of Natural Resources are working determine its working to determine its range and potential threat. A Canadian SWW (Sirex wood wasp) science panel is working in conjuction with a US SWW science panel to manage the pest. The use of APT Intercept panel traps and Lindgren traps baited with Synergy Sirex attractant lures, in consitency with US traps, was employed in unmanaged overstocked pine plantations, particularly Scots pine, in Ste. Sault Marie and surrounding provinces Quebec, New Brunswick, and Nova Scotia. Recent reports indicate no spread to these areas. Some trapping sites are intended to continue as long term study of the ecological effects of S. noctilio (NAPPO, 2005; Pollard, 2006; SSPR, 2006).
The Pennsylvania Department of Conservation and Natural Resources and the US Forest Service surveyed an area surrounding Oswego, NY for Sirex noctilio using Lindgren traps with lures. Pennsylvania is considering regulating firewood to prevent their spread. (SSPR, 2006).
The removal and burning of infested trees in areas of introduction of Sirex noctilio contributed slowing its spread. The parasitic wasp Ibalia leucospoides was released and established itself in some areas as a S. noctilio parasite. A nematode parasite, Deladenus siricidicola, was introduced to South America in the 1995 and 1996 in attempts to control invasive Sirex noctilio populations. There are two forms of this parasite. One which directly parasitizes and sterilizes the wood wasp and one which feeds on its symbiote fungus, Amylostereum areolatum. This practice proved effective and was ended when populations were greatly reduced. When Sirex spread to the eastern South Africa, the program was re-established. This time however parasitism rates were low, and the program is being studied and reevaluated. Currently, foresters have employed the use of aerial multispecteral imagery to identify stressed and infested trees in pine plantations of KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa. (Hurley, 2007; SSPR, 2006; Thayer, 2007; Ismail, 2007).
Nematode Deladenus siricidicola was introduced to control Sirex noctilio populations. It infects S. noctilio larvae eventually sterilizing females and attacks its symbiote fungus Amylostereum areolatum. Also, quarantine restrictions in Australia on the movement of pine timber to uninfested areas played an important role in containment (Bain, 2005; Bedding, 1974).
Parasitic wasps, Megarhyssa nortoni and Rhyssa persuasoria were responsible for reducing Sirex noctilio populations in Tasmania between 1965 and 1974. Nematode Deladenus siricidicola was introduced to control S. noctilio populations. It infects S. noctilio larvae eventually sterilizing females and attacks its symbiote fungus Amylostereum areolatum. Also, quarantine restrictions in Australia on the movement of pine timber to uninfested areas played an important role in containment (Hurley, 2007; Bain, 2005; Bedding, 1974).
Parasitc wasp Ibalia leucospoides was apparently introduced to Uruguay naturally along with Sirex noctilio and first reported in 1984. Deladenus siricidicola was intentionally imported as a control. Quarantine measures in timber movement in South America were also effective (Hurley, 2007).
After the introduction of Sirex noctilio to Victoria, eradication was attempted. A "Search and Destroy" program was carried out to contain it and intvestigate attractants, resistant trees, and effective nematode parasite controls. Parasitc wasps Megarhyssa nortoni and Ibalia leucospoides were introduced with moderate success. Nematode Deladenus siricidicola was found to be most effective by sterilizing S. noctilio females. Inoculation techniques of infected timber with cultured B. siricidicola by Bedding yeilded 99% parastitism rates, and in effective causes about 90% of emerging females to be sterile. Also, quarantine restrictions in Australia on the movement of pine timber to uninfested areas played an important role in containment (Bedding, 1974, Bain, 2005, Hurley, 2007).
2. Bedding, R.A. and Akhurst, R.J. 1974. Use of the nematode Deladenus siricidcola in the biological control of Sirex noctilio in Australia. Journal of Australian Entomology Society. Vol. 13: 129-135.
Summary: A journal article describing the use of nematode Deladenus Siricidcola in the biological control of Sirex noctilio in Australia.
3. Carnegie, A.J., Matsuki, M., Haugen, D.A., Hurley, B.P., Ahumada, R., Klasmer, P., Sun, J. Iede, E.T. 2006. Predicting the potential distribution of Sirex noctilio (Hymenoptera: Siricidae), a significant exotic pest of Pinus plantations. Annals of Forest Science. Vol. 63: 119-128.
Summary: This journal article uses computer programs like CLIMEX to identify potential Sirex noctilio invasive ranges.
6. Haugen, D.A. and Hoebeke, R.E. 2005. Pest Alert: Sirex woodwasp-Sirex noctilio F. (Hymenoptera; Siricidae). USDA Forest Service Northeastern Area State and Private Forestry, 11 Campus Boulevard, Suite 200, Newtown Square, PA 19073.
Summary: A pest alert advisory on Sirex noctilio published by the Northeastern Area USDA Forest Service.
7. Hocking, H. 1967. A native Ichneumonid, Certonotus tasnamiensis Turn. Parasitizing Sirex noctilio F. (Siricidae) in Tasmania. Journal of Australian Entomological Society. Vol. 6: 57-60.
Summary: A journal article concerning Certonotus tasmaniensis parasitizing Sirex noctilio in Tasmania.
8. Hocking, H. 1968. Studies on the biology of Rhyssa persuasoria (L.) (Hymenoptera: Ichneumonidae) incorporating an X-ray technique. Journal of Australian Entomological Society. Vol. 7: 1-5.
Summary: This journal article provides information on the parasitization of Rhyssa persuasoria on Sirex noctilio.
10. Hurley, B.P., Slippers, B., and Wingfield, M.J. 2007. A comparison of the control results for the alien invasive woodwasp, Sirex noctilio, in the southern hemisphere. Agricultural and Forest Entomology. Vol. 9: 159-171.
Summary: This is an excellent source detailing available information concerning Sirex noctilio and its introductions to invasive ranges in the southern hemisphere.
12. Ismail, R., Mutanga, O., and Bob, U. 2007. Forest health and vitality: the detection and monitoring of Pinus patula trees infected by Sirex noctilio using digital multispecteral imagery. Southern Hemisphere Forestry Journal. Vol. 69 No. 1: 39-47.
Summary: This journal article discusses the use of multispecteral imagery to identify trees that have been infested by Sirex noctilio in South Africa.
15. Pollard, 2006. Sirex woodwasp Sirex noctilio (F.). Forest Health Alert. Ontario Ministry of Natural Resources.
Summary: A profile on Sirex noctilio by the Ontario Ministry of Natural Resources.
16. SSPR. 2006. Sirex Science Panel Report. Indianapolis, IN.
Summary: This is a published report of the Sirex Science Panel Meeting consisting of Sirex specialists from around the wolrd offering accounts and updates concerning Sirex noctilio.
Available from: http://www.aphis.usda.gov/plant_health/plant_pest_info/sirex/downloads/sap12-14-06.pdf [Accessed 11 October 2007]
19. Walker, K. 2006. Sirex woodwasp (Sirex noctilio) Pest and Diseases Image Library. Updated on 30/07/2006 12:25:57 PM.
Summary: PaDIL (Pests and Diseases Image Library) is a Commonwealth Government initiative, developed and built by Museum Victoria's Online Publishing Team, with support provided by DAFF (Department of Agriculture, Fisheries and Forestry) and PHA (Plant Health Australia), a non-profit public company. Project partners also include Museum Victoria, the Western Australian Department of Agriculture and the Queensland University of Technology.
The aim of the project is: 1) Production of high quality images showing primarily exotic targeted organisms of plant health concern to Australia. 2)Assist with plant health diagnostics in all areas, from initial to high level. 3) Capacity building for diagnostics in plant health, including linkage developments between training and research organisations. 4)Create and use educational tools for training undergraduates/postgraduates. 5) Engender public awareness about plant health concerns in Australia.
PaDIL is available from : http://www.padil.gov.au/aboutOverview.aspx, this page is available from: http://www.padil.gov.au/viewPestDiagnosticImages.aspx?id=524 [Accessed 14 october 2007]
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