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   Cinara cupressi (昆虫)  English   
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         管理信息

    物理方法:Mwangi(2002) 建议,疏伐以减少树木密度与遮荫,蚜虫似乎偏爱此环境; 在凉爽地区限制种植柏树,以丰富,深化土壤; 种植替代性的物种,例如 Grevillea robusta,那是不会被蚜虫攻击的。

    化学方法:治疗方法包含抗蚜威(Pyrimor),产品对人类与其它昆虫具有低毒性,并经确认能抵抗 C. cupressi。作者指出,要取得成功的治疗,第一个在休眠后定居树木的蚜虫族群(这发生在3月份在意大利)应为主要目标。后来治疗总是不太成功的,如果在外观枯萎后进行,有时是无用的。治疗必须摇动树枝让蚜虫掉入放在树下的白布。成功的治疗也取决于喷洒全部树枝的叶片。作者建议,砍伐前最好先等待一下,因为甚至严重损坏的树木,往往会长出不定芽而恢复生长。(Panconesi, Undated) 皇家园艺学会 (2004) 指出,在初夏第一次有被攻击的迹象时立即喷涂,以防止损害的发生。合适的产品包含 imidacloprid(Bio Provado 终极的虫杀手), bifenthrin (Scotts Bug Clear, Doff All-In-One Garden Pest Killer or Bio Sprayday Greenfly Killer Plus)。他们观察到,往往很难彻底的喷洒大的树篱,当蚜虫变多时,损害将出现。虽然缓慢被坏的树篱终将恢复。Mwangi(2002) 报告关于尝试使用大型背负式暖雾机。作者说,暖雾机减少三分之二喷洒时间。利用雾作为运送载体,上升到树冠后落下覆盖树的所有部分。动力喷洒器需要许多水,而且喷雾液滴不能够达到大树的顶端。作者指出, 在土壤中使用系统性农药,未能产生良好的结果" 。

    生物方法:可以探讨用作生物防治剂的天敌,例如: Pauesis cupressobii P. juniperorum(膜翅目:Braconidae) ,被发现会攻击 Cinara juniperi。另一个例子是 Aphidussp ,一个拟寄生物,在德国被发现会攻击 C. cupressi。(Mwangi, 2002)

    Kamunya et al.(1997)进行的一项研究中,Cupressus lusitanica从 18个科公开授粉的种子上发芽,分别接种日龄1龄的 C. cupressi。研究人员发现,有些 C. lusitanica对蚜虫有抵抗力,而且他们也通常产生有抵抗力的后代。Orondo and Day (1994) 量化肯亚的 C. cupressi C. lusitanica的伤害 。603株的每个损害区分五个等级六次。研究人员发现,在研究期间内损害减少。作者推论,数据表明,在决定彻底砍筏以前,需要小心监测植株,特别是一些最初损害最大的树木,最后被观察到回复生长。这些观察应该重复在较年轻的树与不同的区域上。 English   



         地点特有的管理信息
    Chile
    Results of surveys have shown that tree mortality reaches 30% in some areas. Two other potential hosts of the aphid in Chile are the native conifers Fitzroya cupressoides (a national emblem) and Pilgerodendron uviferum (the most southerly conifer in the world). The potential area of attack in Chile is estimated over 1.2 million hectares, corresponding to the total forest surface in which the species F. cupressoides, Astrocedrus chilensis and P. uviferum are present. Because of the aphid's adaptation to Chilean conditions, and the large area involved, scientists are currently considering biological control as possible long-term solution to the problem, looking at Pauesia sp. (Hymenoptera: Braconidae) as a potential biocontrol agent as it has been successfully used in control programs in several African countries (Iriarte, Undated).
    Toscana
    In 1997, a sudden outbreak of the cypress aphid C. cupressi was reported in Central Italy, mainly in Tuscany. Many cypress trees were seen to redden and wither especially in the urban and suburban areas. This outbreak is the second, the first one was recorded in 1977-78. Data obtained from the first outbreak indicates that the aphid underwent a lifecycle of 11 or 12 generations in the full year (Andrea, 1997)


         管理资源 /链接

    1. CFAN (Canadian Forestry Advisers Network). 1991. East Africa: Biological Pest Control. Forestry Profiles. Canadian International Development Agency (CIDA).
    2. Kamunya, S. M., R. K. Day, E. Chagala, and P. S. Olng'otie. 1997. Variation and inheritance of resistance to cypress aphid, Cinara cupressi Buckton in Cupressus lusitanica Miller. Annals of Applied Biology. 130(1):27-36.
    3. Mills, N. J. 1990. Biological control of forest aphid pests in Africa. Bulletin of Entomological Research. 80(1):31-36.

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ISSG Landcare Research NBII IUCN University of Auckland