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   Corvus splendens (鳥類)  English 
生態 分佈 管理 影響 參考資料 聯繫


         管理資訊

    家鴉遷移到新的國家主要是靠船舶的協助,在東非其擴散受到一些宗教團體支持,因為他們認為烏鴉是神聖的。家烏鴉智慧高(例如受威脅時改變停棲地)、競爭能力強、食性多樣、高生殖力,因此在人們試圖撲滅時,仍能迅速恢復,多方辦法並行,包括大量撲殺、策略性蓄意破壞鳥巢、限制糧食和合適的巢位,才可能成功(Soh et al. 2002, in Brook et al. 2003)。

    在多個地區家烏鴉已達到害鳥的程度,並已有人企圖減少它們的數量,在馬來西亞的主要策略是陷阱捕捉及射殺(P. Green in litt., in Ryall 1992),在亞丁、葉門和馬爾地夫使用不同毒物 (60久效磷、α-氯醛、倍硫磷和甲基苯胺氫氣酸鹽Starlicide,Ash 1984a b, in Ryall 1992),而在肯亞蒙巴薩(Mombasa, Kenya),結合陷阱捕捉、毒藥毒殺、銷毀蛋和雛鳥的方式,已有一些成效(Ryall and Reid 1986, in Ryall 1992)。Pakenham (1979, in Ryall 1992),幾十年來試圖以獎金制度控制在桑給巴爾(Zanzibar)家烏鴉數量,但宣告失敗,該處家烏鴉數量仍然有很多;然而,在澳大利亞支付報酬射殺家烏鴉,成功阻止了跟著印度貨船抵達的家烏鴉建立族群(Frith 1976, in Ryall 1992)。Ryall (1992)報告指出,這個物種主要遍布在缺乏資源或有機體的地方,而累積的人類垃圾,提供了充足的食物,控制這個問題無疑具有調控家鴉數量的最大效果。

    預防措施:避免鳥類經由船隻運輸到現已存的港口和城市以外,在脆弱的城市入口區域和相關地區建立定期監督檢查站是有效益的,如鄰近區域和國家連結監測;其他措施,包括保持城市環境清潔(尤其是垃圾清除)和修改微棲息地(例如,選擇適合的樹種種植)。

    物理方法:在繁殖期摧毀巢、蛋和雛鳥並不常施行,槍擊或陷阱捕捉效率非常有限,因為家烏鴉是是非常社會化的鳥,對直接迫害高度敏感;提供獎賞對控制該物種沒有很大的效益。

    化學方法:預先引誘,以各種的殺鳥劑毒沙,配合清潔改善有良好效果,然而,不加控制可能會影響非目標動物、環境和人類的資源(例如水)。檢查與消除任何倖存者(通常分散)是勞動密集且耗資龐大的,而且最重要關鍵是長期維持才有效果。 English 


         管理資源 /鏈接

    1. Archer, A.L., 1995. The Indian House Crow Corvus splendens control programme in Zanzibar and Pemba Review for the five years 1990-1995. Unpublished report.
    2. Archer, A.L., 1998. Indian house crow (Corvus splendens): a control programme and recommendations for Republic de Djibouti. A consultant report to National Biodiversity Strategy Action Plan Project (NBSAP), Ministre de I’Environment du Tourisme et de I’Artisanat (META) and World Conservation Union (IUCN) Regional Office for Eastern Africa.
    3. Archer, A.L., 2001. Control of the Indian House Crow Corvus splendens in eastern Africa. Ostrich Supplement 15:147 - 152
    6. Brook, Barry, W; Sodhi, Navjot, S; Soh, Malcolm, C. K; Lim, Haw Chuan., 2003. Abundance and projected control of invasive house crows in Singapore. The Journal of Wildlife Management 2003 vol:67 iss:4 pg:808 -817
    7. Brooke, R.K., Lloyd, P.H. & de Villiers, A.L. 1986. Alien and translocated terrestrial vertebrates in South Africa. pp. 63 – 74 in: Macdonald, I.A. et al. (eds.). The ecology and management of Biological Invasions in South Africa. Oxford University Press, Cape Town, South Africa.
    8. Charles, J. K. 1978. Management of the House Crow – an urban problem. Biotropica Special Publication 8: 191 – 197.
    10. Feare C. J. & Watson., 1990. Status and management of House Crow in Mauritius Biol. Conserv. 51 (63 - 70)
    11. Feare, C.J. and Mungroo, Y. 1990. The Status and Management of the House Crow Corvus splendens (Vieiilot) in Mauritius, Biological Conservation 51: 63-70.
            摘要: An assessment of the potential impacts of the house crow in Mauritius and a description of recommended management practices.
    12. Gibbs, D.; Wolfaardt, A.; Shaw, K. Unpublished Evaluation of the 2003 House Crow eradication programme.
    13. Hails C. J. 1985a. Studies of problem bird species in Singapore. II. Corvidae (Crows). Unpublished report to Commissioner for Parks and Recreation, Ministry of National Development, Republic of Singapore.
    14. Hails, C. J. 1985b. Bird pests, management techniques and the status of bird pests in Singapore. Journal of the Singapore National Academy of Science 14: 15 – 23.
    15. Howard, G.W. 2003. Control of the invasive Indian House Crow on the Eastern Africa coast and its hinterland. A project concept note. Environment Initiative of NEPAD & IUCN Eastern Africa.
    16. Jennings M., 1992. The House Crow in Aden and attempted control. Sandgrouse 14: 27 - 33
    17. Lens, l. 1996. Hitting back at House Crows. Kenya Birds 4: 55 – 56.
    18. Lim Haw Chuan, Navjot S. Sodhi, Barry W. Brook and Malcom C. K. Soh., 2003. Undesirable aliens: factors determining the distribution of three invasive bird species in Singapore. Journal of Tropical Ecology (2003), 19: 685-695 Cambridge University Press
    19. Meininger, P.L. Mullie, W.C. & Bruun, B. 1980. Spread of House Crow with special reference to the occurence in Egypt, Gerfaut 70: 245 - 250
    21. Peh, K. S. H. & N. S. Sodhi. 2002. Characteristics of nocturnal roosts of house crows in Singapore. Journal of Wildlife Management. 66 (4): 1128 - 1133.
    23. Rhoda, L. Unpublished Operational Manual for the Eradication of House Crows April 2003.
    24. Roy, P. 1998. Isolation of Newcastle Disease Virus from an Indian House Crow. Tropical Animal Health and Production. Vol. 30 (3): 177 – 178.
    25. Ryall, C. 1990. Notes on nest construction by the Indian House Crow Corvus splendens and other aspects of its breeding biology in Mombasa, Kenya. Scopus 14 (1): 14 – 16.
    26. Ryall, C. 1992. The pest status of the Indian House Crow Corvus splendens in Mombasa and a survey of its expansion of range in coastal Kenya; In: L. Bennun (Ed). Proc. VIIth Pan. African Ornith. Congr. Nairobi, Aug 1988.
    27. Ryall, C. 1995. Additional records of range extension in the House Crow Corvus splendens. BOC Bulletin 115 (3): 185 – 187
    28. Ryall, C. 2003. Mimicry of a crow chick by an Asian koel Eudynamys scolopacea as a defence against attack by house crows Corvus splendens. J. Bombay Nat. History Soc. 100 (1):136 – 138.
    29. Ryall, C. 2003. Notes on ecology and behaviour of House Crows at Hoek van Holland. Dutch Birding 25 (5): 167 - 172.
    30. Ryall, C., 1988. The pest status of the Indian House Crow in Mombasa and a survey of its expansion of range in Proceedings of the VII th Pan African Ornithological Congress, 1988
    31. Ryall, Colin., 2010. House Crow Monitor Corvus splendens
            摘要: This web site is part of a 25 year old programme to monitoring the continuing world-wide invasion of the House Crow, as well as its status in places where it has already established.
    Available from: http://www.housecrow.com/ [Accessed 2 March 2010]
    32. Sodhi, N. S. & Sharp I. 2006. Winged Invaders. Pest birds of the Asia Pacific. SNP Publishing, Singapore.
    33. Soh, M.C.K., N.S. Sodhi., R.K.H. Seoh and B.W. Brook., 2002. Nest site selection of an urban invasive bird species in Singapore, the House Crow (Corvus splendens), and implications for its management. Landscape and Urban Planning 59: 217 – 226.
    34. Suliman, Ahmed Saeid; Guntram Meier and Peter, J. Haverson, 2010. Confirmed eradication of the house crow from Socotra Island, Republic of Yemen. Wildlife Middle East, Volume 4 Issue 4 March 2010 in Arabic and English
    35. Wildlife Conservation Society of Tanzania (WCST)., 1998. House Crow control May/June 1998. WCST Tanzania, Dar-es-Salaam

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ISSG Landcare Research NBII IUCN University of Auckland