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   Hypericum perforatum (草本植物)  English   
生態 分佈 管理 影響 參考資料 聯繫


         管理資訊

    化學方法:金絲桃的化學控制成效不一,控制成效取決於管理計劃和施用地點。在南非,最初的管理計劃是用化學方法移除,但這一計劃被證明是失敗,太昂貴而被迫暫(戈登和克魯格, 1991)。同樣地在加拿大不列顛哥倫比亞省,化學控制方法,也無法移除此植物(戈登和克魯格, 1991)。但是在南澳大利亞山麓和牧場,進行了幾個田野研究和設計一個化學處理管理策略。使用了幾種不同的化學製劑,被證明是最成功的組合是2,4-D + 2,2,-DPA,或直接使用草甘膦(坎貝爾等人, 1975)。使用時機是化學方法成功的關鍵,在澳大利亞,秋天時於葉面噴灑是最有效的(坎貝爾等人, 1975)。此外,施用方法和災區面積是決定化學處理方法的先決條件。在坎貝爾等人(1991)的研究發現,綠草萣+毒莠定,對金絲桃沒有選擇性,會殺害任何附近的豆科植物。小區域使用這些化學藥劑,效果最好。對於 glyphosates使用空中噴灑效果較好,也對金絲桃更有選擇性,但是glyphosates在溫度較高時效果不好(坎貝爾等人, 1991)。為了獲得最佳的覆蓋率,建議使用空中噴灑,用水作為佐劑,每年重複噴施(坎貝爾等人, 1991)。氨基磺酸銨已在數項研究證明是一種有效的除草劑,可用在木質莖植物和金絲桃,其另外的好處是,能分解成原生草類可吸收的養分(奧爾蓋耶,1944)。

    文化教育:已經有控制牲畜啃食的管理方法(坎貝爾等人,75),但只是作為其他化學或生物方法的一個補充控制方法。還必須考慮金絲桃是有毒的,可導致神經系統和其他健康問題,如果牲畜大量吃下,甚至會死亡(巴克利等人, 2003)。山羊似乎比其他牲畜更能容忍金絲桃的毒性作用(巴克利等人, 2003)。把耕地犁耕後播種多年生牧草和豆科植物是另一種控制方法(坎貝爾等 0.1975)。播種多年生牧草和豆科牧草,幾個星期後可使用化學處理程序幫助壓制再生(巴克利等人, 2003)。

    物理方法:這個物種不建議使用機械方法清除,因為它可以從相當廣泛的地下根莖的根冠行無性繁殖(Tisdale等人,1959)。火燒是不建議作為一種控制手段,因為此植物可以持續利用存儲在其根冠的地下資源(巴克利等人, 2003),然後經由吸根繁殖(Tisdale等人,1959)。 English   



         管理資源 /鏈接

    1. Allgaier, B.E., 1944, The Chemical Control of Klamath Weed.I. Application of Ecological Methods in Determining the Herbicidal and Fertilizing Properties of Ammonium Sulfamate and Commercial Borax, Ecology, Vol. 25, no. 4, pp.424-432.
            摘要: An alterntaive chemical management plan which utilizes ammonium sulfamate and borax as an herbicide for the control of St. John's wort as well as a fertilizer in later stages of decomposition for native grasses. Plant description and common names also detailed.
    2. Briese, D.T., & Jupp, P.W., 1995, Establishment , Spread and Initial Impact of Aphis chloris Koch (Hemiptera: Aphididae), Introduced into Australia for the Biological Control of St. John's wort, Biocontrol Science and TechnologyVol. 5, pp.271-285.
            摘要: This article discusses some of the potential biological control insects and their subsequent establishement in Australia for control of St. John's wort. The insects involved show various rates of success in controlling the plant, but no one species stands out as a possible control option.
    3. Buckley, Y.M., Briese, D.T., & Rees, M., 2003, Demography and management of the invasive plant species Hypericum perforatum. I. Using multi-level mixed-effects models for characterizing growth, survival, and fecundity in a long-term data set, Journal of Applied Ecology, Vol. 40, pp. 481-493.
            摘要: Very informative article which addresses some of the environmental and management issues when trying to form models on the invasiveness of Hypericum perforatum. Gives good details on history and distribution of St. John's wort in Australia and some of factors involved in its success as a species and what control options lack in containing or stabilizing the population.
    4. Campbell, M.H., Flemons, K.F., Dellows,J.J, Dec. 1975, Control of St. John's wort (Hypericum perforatum var. angustifolium) on non-arable land, Australian Journal of Experimental Agriculture and Animal Husbandry, Vol. 15, pp.812-817.
            摘要: Chemical and cultural control management strategies with observations and techniques of how to employ these strategies. Very informative on drawbacks and considerations landowners and agencies need to consider when employing the control of St. John's wort on non-arable rangeland.
    5. Campbell, M.H., Milne, B.R., Dellow, J.J., & Nicol, H.I., 1991, Effect of herbicides on St. John's wort (Hypericum perforatum L.), Australian Journal of Experimental Agriculture, Vol. 31, pp.499-501.
            摘要: Another article with additional emphasis on chemical and cultural control strategies in Australian rangeland management.
    6. Gordon, A.J., & Kluge, R.L., 1991, Biological control of St. John's Wort, Hypericum perforatum (Clusiaceae), in South Africa, Agriculture, Ecosystems, and Environment, Vol. 37, pp.77-90.
            摘要: Article discussing the management strategies employed by agencies in South Africa in an effort to control populations of introduced St. John's wort. It gives great information into some of the failures of control and the success of using biological controls to stablilize the plant's population in South Africa with references to other countries as well.
    7. Tisdale, E.W., Hironaka, M., & Pringle, W.L., Jan. 1959, Observations on the Autecology of Hypericum perforatum, Ecology, Vol. 40, No. 1, pp.54-62.
            摘要: An excellent source for habitat effects on Hypericum perforatum and on methods of dispersal, reproduction, and land management.
    8. Wapshere, A.J., 1984, Recent work in Europe on biological control of Hypericum perforatum [Guttiferae] for Australia, Entomophaga, Vol. 29, no. 2, pp.145-156.
            摘要: Another article relating success and failure of different introductions of biological control for Hypericum perforatum. The species tested and observed again show various levels of success, but no one species is shown to establish and effectively control the plant.

         結果頁: 1  


ISSG Landcare Research NBII IUCN University of Auckland