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   Hypericum perforatum (草本植物)  English   
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         管理信息

    化学方法:金丝桃的化学控制成效不一,控制成效取决于管理计划和施用地点。在南非,最初的管理计划是用化学方法移除,但这一计划被证明是失败,太昂贵而被迫暂(戈登和克鲁格, 1991)。同样地在加拿大不列颠哥伦比亚省,化学控制方法,也无法移除此植物(戈登和克鲁格, 1991)。但是在南澳大利亚山麓和牧场,进行了几个田野研究和设计一个化学处理管理策略。使用了几种不同的化学制剂,被证明是最成功的组合是2,4-D + 2,2,-DPA,或直接使用草甘膦(坎贝尔等人, 1975)。使用时机是化学方法成功的关键,在澳大利亚,秋天时于叶面喷洒是最有效的(坎贝尔等人, 1975)。此外,施用方法和灾区面积是决定化学处理方法的先决条件。在坎贝尔等人(1991)的研究发现,绿草萣+毒莠定,对金丝桃没有选择性,会杀害任何附近的豆科植物。小区域使用这些化学药剂,效果最好。对于 glyphosates使用空中喷洒效果较好,也对金丝桃更有选择性,但是glyphosates在温度较高时效果不好(坎贝尔等人, 1991)。为了获得最佳的覆盖率,建议使用空中喷洒,用水作为佐剂,每年重复喷施(坎贝尔等人, 1991)。氨基磺酸铵已在数项研究证明是一种有效的除草剂,可用在木质茎植物和金丝桃,其另外的好处是,能分解成原生草类可吸收的养分(奥尔盖耶,1944)。

    文化教育:已经有控制牲畜啃食的管理方法(坎贝尔等人,75),但只是作为其它化学或生物方法的一个补充控制方法。还必须考虑金丝桃是有毒的,可导致神经系统和其它健康问题,如果牲畜大量吃下,甚至会死亡(巴克利等人, 2003)。山羊似乎比其它牲畜更能容忍金丝桃的毒性作用(巴克利等人, 2003)。把耕地犁耕后播种多年生牧草和豆科植物是另一种控制方法(坎贝尔等 0.1975)。播种多年生牧草和豆科牧草,几个星期后可使用化学处理程序帮助压制再生(巴克利等人, 2003)。

    物理方法:这个物种不建议使用机械方法清除,因为它可以从相当广泛的地下根茎的根冠行无性繁殖(Tisdale等人,1959) 。火烧是不建议作为一种控制手段,因为此植物可以持续利用存储在其根冠的地下资源(巴克利等人, 2003),然后经由吸根繁殖(Tisdale等人,1959)。 English   



         管理资源 /链接

    1. Allgaier, B.E., 1944, The Chemical Control of Klamath Weed.I. Application of Ecological Methods in Determining the Herbicidal and Fertilizing Properties of Ammonium Sulfamate and Commercial Borax, Ecology, Vol. 25, no. 4, pp.424-432.
            摘要: An alterntaive chemical management plan which utilizes ammonium sulfamate and borax as an herbicide for the control of St. John's wort as well as a fertilizer in later stages of decomposition for native grasses. Plant description and common names also detailed.
    2. Briese, D.T., & Jupp, P.W., 1995, Establishment , Spread and Initial Impact of Aphis chloris Koch (Hemiptera: Aphididae), Introduced into Australia for the Biological Control of St. John's wort, Biocontrol Science and TechnologyVol. 5, pp.271-285.
            摘要: This article discusses some of the potential biological control insects and their subsequent establishement in Australia for control of St. John's wort. The insects involved show various rates of success in controlling the plant, but no one species stands out as a possible control option.
    3. Buckley, Y.M., Briese, D.T., & Rees, M., 2003, Demography and management of the invasive plant species Hypericum perforatum. I. Using multi-level mixed-effects models for characterizing growth, survival, and fecundity in a long-term data set, Journal of Applied Ecology, Vol. 40, pp. 481-493.
            摘要: Very informative article which addresses some of the environmental and management issues when trying to form models on the invasiveness of Hypericum perforatum. Gives good details on history and distribution of St. John's wort in Australia and some of factors involved in its success as a species and what control options lack in containing or stabilizing the population.
    4. Campbell, M.H., Flemons, K.F., Dellows,J.J, Dec. 1975, Control of St. John's wort (Hypericum perforatum var. angustifolium) on non-arable land, Australian Journal of Experimental Agriculture and Animal Husbandry, Vol. 15, pp.812-817.
            摘要: Chemical and cultural control management strategies with observations and techniques of how to employ these strategies. Very informative on drawbacks and considerations landowners and agencies need to consider when employing the control of St. John's wort on non-arable rangeland.
    5. Campbell, M.H., Milne, B.R., Dellow, J.J., & Nicol, H.I., 1991, Effect of herbicides on St. John's wort (Hypericum perforatum L.), Australian Journal of Experimental Agriculture, Vol. 31, pp.499-501.
            摘要: Another article with additional emphasis on chemical and cultural control strategies in Australian rangeland management.
    6. Gordon, A.J., & Kluge, R.L., 1991, Biological control of St. John's Wort, Hypericum perforatum (Clusiaceae), in South Africa, Agriculture, Ecosystems, and Environment, Vol. 37, pp.77-90.
            摘要: Article discussing the management strategies employed by agencies in South Africa in an effort to control populations of introduced St. John's wort. It gives great information into some of the failures of control and the success of using biological controls to stablilize the plant's population in South Africa with references to other countries as well.
    7. Tisdale, E.W., Hironaka, M., & Pringle, W.L., Jan. 1959, Observations on the Autecology of Hypericum perforatum, Ecology, Vol. 40, No. 1, pp.54-62.
            摘要: An excellent source for habitat effects on Hypericum perforatum and on methods of dispersal, reproduction, and land management.
    8. Wapshere, A.J., 1984, Recent work in Europe on biological control of Hypericum perforatum [Guttiferae] for Australia, Entomophaga, Vol. 29, no. 2, pp.145-156.
            摘要: Another article relating success and failure of different introductions of biological control for Hypericum perforatum. The species tested and observed again show various levels of success, but no one species is shown to establish and effectively control the plant.

         结果页: 1  


ISSG Landcare Research NBII IUCN University of Auckland