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   Rhinella marina (=Bufo marinus) (兩棲動物)  English  français   
生態 分佈 管理 影響 參考資料 聯繫


    預防措施:在澳洲南部的蔗蟾蜍的傳佈上的主要的控制方法是檢疫檢查與公眾意識和反應。在新南威爾斯的北海岸上的一個宣傳運動造成 100個人收集超過 900隻蔗蟾蜍。

    物理方法:使用 50 公分高的障礙物,可以把蔗蟾蜍阻絕在花園池塘與水壩外,例如一排厚的樹籬或網孔圍籬。可以用人道方法殺死蟾蜍,把他們放在一個塑膠袋子或容器內,然後放入冰庫。(Brandt 與 Mazzotti, 1990)

    生物方法:在1994年,聯邦科學與工業研究部的野生動物和生態(澳大利亞)部門,評估致病性和特異性病毒以對抗蔗蟾蜍。科學家在澳大利亞動物健康實驗室在維多利亞一直在尋找生物控制甘蔗蟾蜍,並於2001年,他們開始調查基因技術作為一種控制機制。 澳大利亞環境部已經發起了一個項目,以發展甘蔗蟾蜍生物控制。 這樣做的目的是制定一個自我傳播病毒載體破壞蟾蜍發育。 阿德雷得市大學(澳洲)的科學家已經在一隻本土澳洲青蛙中分離出一個性費洛蒙; 他們希望一個相似的費洛蒙將被發現可以用來破壞蟾蜍的繁殖周期。 這些是長期解決方案。雪梨大學的

    科學家確認一個攻擊手杖蟾蜍的肺的寄生蠕蟲,阻礙成長他們的生長與, 在大多數情況中, 殺害他們。 他們相信寄生蟲有潛能減少蟾蜍族群戲劇性地。 English  français   

         管理資源 /鏈接

    4. Centre for Environment, Fisheries & Aquaculture Science (CEFAS)., 2008. Decision support tools-Identifying potentially invasive non-native marine and freshwater species: fish, invertebrates, amphibians.
            摘要: The electronic tool kits made available on the Cefas page for free download are Crown Copyright (2007-2008). As such, these are freeware and may be freely distributed provided this notice is retained. No warranty, expressed or implied, is made and users should satisfy themselves as to the applicability of the results in any given circumstance. Toolkits available include 1) FISK- Freshwater Fish Invasiveness Scoring Kit (English and Spanish language version); 2) MFISK- Marine Fish Invasiveness Scoring Kit; 3) MI-ISK- Marine invertebrate Invasiveness Scoring Kit; 4) FI-ISK- Freshwater Invertebrate Invasiveness Scoring Kit and AmphISK- Amphibian Invasiveness Scoring Kit. These tool kits were developed by Cefas, with new VisualBasic and computational programming by Lorenzo Vilizzi, David Cooper, Andy South and Gordon H. Copp, based on VisualBasic code in the original Weed Risk Assessment (WRA) tool kit of P.C. Pheloung, P.A. Williams & S.R. Halloy (1999).
    The decision support tools are available from: [Accessed 13 October 2011]
    The guidance document is available from [Accessed 13 January 2009].
    5. CSIROnline, 2001. Commonwealth Scientific and Industrial Research Organisation.
            摘要: Good information on cane toad control in Australia.
    6. Doody, J.S., Green, B., Sims, R., Rhind, D., West, P., and Steer, D. 2006. Indirect impacts of invasive cane toads (Bufo marinus) on nest predation in pig-nosed turtles (Carettochelys insculpta). Wildlife Research 33, 349–354.
    8. Hyatt, Alex and Humphrey, John. 1995. Biological Control of the Cane Toad in Australia. FROGLOG Number 15. CSIRO Australian Animal Health Laboratory.
            摘要: Has information on efforts to use biological control on cane toads in Australia.
    9. IUCN 2010. IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Version 2010.4.
            摘要: The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species provides taxonomic, conservation status and distribution information on taxa that have been globally evaluated using the IUCN Red List Categories and Criteria. This system is designed to determine the relative risk of extinction, and the main purpose of the IUCN Red List is to catalogue and highlight those taxa that are facing a higher risk of global extinction (i.e. those listed as Critically Endangered, Endangered and Vulnerable). The IUCN Red List also includes information on taxa that are categorized as Extinct or Extinct in the Wild; on taxa that cannot be evaluated because of insufficient information (i.e. are Data Deficient); and on taxa that are either close to meeting the threatened thresholds or that would be threatened were it not for an ongoing taxon-specific conservation programme (i.e. are Near Threatened).
    Available from: [Accessed 25 May 2011]
    10. IUCN/SSC Invasive Species Specialist Group (ISSG)., 2010. A Compilation of Information Sources for Conservation Managers.
            摘要: This compilation of information sources can be sorted on keywords for example: Baits & Lures, Non Target Species, Eradication, Monitoring, Risk Assessment, Weeds, Herbicides etc. This compilation is at present in Excel format, this will be web-enabled as a searchable database shortly. This version of the database has been developed by the IUCN SSC ISSG as part of an Overseas Territories Environmental Programme funded project XOT603 in partnership with the Cayman Islands Government - Department of Environment. The compilation is a work under progress, the ISSG will manage, maintain and enhance the database with current and newly published information, reports, journal articles etc.
    11. Lever, C. 2001. The Cane Toad: the history and ecology of a successful colonist. Westbury Publishing, West Yorkshire. 230pp.
            摘要: An extremely comprehensive text on all aspects of cane toad ecology and history. Has very detailed coverage of all the locations where cane toads have been introduced. An excellent resource for further information.
    13. Narayan, E.; Christi, K.; Morley, C.; Trevenen, P., 2008. Sexual dimorphism in the cane toad Bufo marinus: a quantitative comparison of visual inspection methods for sexing individuals. The Herpetological Journal, Volume 18, Number 1, January 2008 , pp. 63-65(3)
            摘要: A study was conducted to determine whether simple morphological characteristics could be used to rapidly determine the sex of cane toads. We found that four characteristics reliably allowed rapid assessment of sex: skin texture on the dorsal surface, skin colour on the dorsal surface, the presence of a creamy-coloured stripe along the dorsal margin and the presence of vocal sac openings. These criteria were tested by an assessment of use by both experienced and novice operators and were shown to be reliable for sexing cane toads that were large enough to assess morphological characteristics reliably (individuals with a snout-vent length exceeding 50 mm). Of the four techniques, the presence of vocal sac openings proved to be the most reliable. Such techniques may be used for a number of purposes, and are particularly useful during conservation projects that attempt to eradicate or reduce the effects of this invasive alien species on local ecosystems.
    14. Natural Resources and Water (NRW), 2006. Fact sheet: Cane toad Bufo marinus Queensland Government Dept. of Natural Resources and Water
    16. Page, Amanda; Win Kirkpatrick and Marion Massam, July 2008, Cane Toad (Bufo marinus) risk assessments for Australia, Department of Agriculture and FoodWestern Australia.
            摘要: Models for assessing the risk that exotic vertebrates could establish in Australia have been developed for mammals, birds (Bomford 2003; Bomford 2006, 2008), reptiles and amphibians (Bomford 2006, 2008; Bomford et al. 2005). These Risk Assessment models have been further explored by Western Australia Department of Agriculture & Food (DAFWA) to confirm that they reasonably predict public safety, establishment and pest risks across a full range of exotic species and risk levels. Mammals and birds were assessed for the pest risk they pose if introduced to Australia, by calculating Vertebrate Pests Committee (VPC) Threat Categories. These categories incorporate risk of establishing populations in the wild, risk of causing public harm, and risk of becoming a pest (eg causing agricultural damage, competing with native fauna, etc). The 7-factor Australian Bird and Mammal Model was used for these assessments.
    19. Wilson, Colin, Wildlife Management Officer, Department of Infrastructure, Planning and Environment, Parks & Wildlife Service, Northern Territory, Australia.
            摘要: Compilor of original GISD profile of Chromoleana odorata.

         結果頁: 1  

ISSG Landcare Research NBII IUCN University of Auckland