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   Rhinella marina (=Bufo marinus) (两栖动物)  English  français   
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         管理信息

    预防措施:在澳洲南部的蔗蟾蜍的传布上的主要的控制方法是检疫检查与公众意识和反应。在新南韦尔斯的北海岸上的一个宣传运动造成 100个人收集超过 900只蔗蟾蜍。

    物理方法:使用 50 公分高的障碍物,可以把蔗蟾蜍阻绝在花园池塘与水坝外,例如一排厚的树篱或网孔围篱。可以用人道方法杀死蟾蜍,把他们放在一个塑料袋子或容器内,然后放入冰库。(Brandt 与 Mazzotti, 1990)

    生物方法:在1994年,联邦科学与工业研究部的野生动物和生态(澳大利亚)部门,评估致病性和特异性病毒以对抗蔗蟾蜍。科学家在澳大利亚动物健康实验室在维多利亚一直在寻找生物控制甘蔗蟾蜍,并于2001年,他们开始调查基因技术作为一种控制机制。 澳大利亚环境部已经发起了一个项目,以发展甘蔗蟾蜍生物控制。 这样做的目的是制定一个自我传播病毒载体破坏蟾蜍发育。 阿德雷得市大学 (澳洲) 的科学家已经在一只本土澳洲青蛙中分离出一个性费洛蒙; 他们希望一个相似的费洛蒙将被发现可以用来破坏蟾蜍的繁殖周期。 这些是长期解决方案。雪梨大学的

    科学家确认一个攻击手杖蟾蜍的肺的寄生蠕虫,阻碍成长他们的生长与, 在大多数情况中, 杀害他们。 他们相信寄生虫有潜能减少蟾蜍族群戏剧性地。 English  français   



         地点特有的管理信息
    Bermuda
    Bufo marinus were actively searched for and removed from Nonsuch Island (Madeiros, 2003 in Varnham, 2006).
    Iriomotejima Is. (Ryukyu Islands)
    The Japanese Environment Ministry is conducting research in an effort to exterminate the cane toads. Locals are being encouraged to cooperate with officials.
    Kakadu National Park
    Surveys of the toad population and a risk assessment have been conducted to try and determine the effect that the toads will have on the ecology of the area.
    Louisiana
    Chemical and mechanical control options used.
    Viwa Is.
    There is a proposal to eradicate cane toads and invasive mammals (rats, cats and dogs) from Viwa Island (60 ha), in Fiji to protect (among other native wildlife) the endangered Fijian ground frog (see Platymantis vitiana in IUCN Red List of Threatened species).
    The removal of these invasive species from Viwa Island would benefit a range of other native species, including the banded iguana (Brachylophus fasciatus), Pacific boa (Candoia bibroni), and several species of gecko and skink. In addition to the biodiversity benefits, this project is expected to have several socio-economic benefits to the people on Viwa. These include an increased agricultural harvest, improved health and sanitation (domestic water supply and disposal), ecotourism and employment opportunities, and finally cultural pride for the Viwa Island people (104 people live on the island).
    The University of the South Pacific is implementing this project with Joape Kuruyawa as the full-time project manager and funding by the Critical Ecosystems Partnership Fund (CEPF), the Australian Regional Natural Heritage Programme (RNHP) and the New Zealand International Aid & Development Agency (NZAID).


         管理资源 /链接

    4. Centre for Environment, Fisheries & Aquaculture Science (CEFAS)., 2008. Decision support tools-Identifying potentially invasive non-native marine and freshwater species: fish, invertebrates, amphibians.
            摘要: The electronic tool kits made available on the Cefas page for free download are Crown Copyright (2007-2008). As such, these are freeware and may be freely distributed provided this notice is retained. No warranty, expressed or implied, is made and users should satisfy themselves as to the applicability of the results in any given circumstance. Toolkits available include 1) FISK- Freshwater Fish Invasiveness Scoring Kit (English and Spanish language version); 2) MFISK- Marine Fish Invasiveness Scoring Kit; 3) MI-ISK- Marine invertebrate Invasiveness Scoring Kit; 4) FI-ISK- Freshwater Invertebrate Invasiveness Scoring Kit and AmphISK- Amphibian Invasiveness Scoring Kit. These tool kits were developed by Cefas, with new VisualBasic and computational programming by Lorenzo Vilizzi, David Cooper, Andy South and Gordon H. Copp, based on VisualBasic code in the original Weed Risk Assessment (WRA) tool kit of P.C. Pheloung, P.A. Williams & S.R. Halloy (1999).
    The decision support tools are available from: http://cefas.defra.gov.uk/our-science/ecosystems-and-biodiversity/non-native-species/decision-support-tools.aspx [Accessed 13 October 2011]
    The guidance document is available from http://www.cefas.co.uk/media/118009/fisk_guide_v2.pdf [Accessed 13 January 2009].
    5. CSIROnline, 2001. Commonwealth Scientific and Industrial Research Organisation.
            摘要: Good information on cane toad control in Australia.
    6. Doody, J.S., Green, B., Sims, R., Rhind, D., West, P., and Steer, D. 2006. Indirect impacts of invasive cane toads (Bufo marinus) on nest predation in pig-nosed turtles (Carettochelys insculpta). Wildlife Research 33, 349–354.
    8. Hyatt, Alex and Humphrey, John. 1995. Biological Control of the Cane Toad in Australia. FROGLOG Number 15. CSIRO Australian Animal Health Laboratory.
            摘要: Has information on efforts to use biological control on cane toads in Australia.
    9. IUCN 2010. IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Version 2010.4.
            摘要: The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species provides taxonomic, conservation status and distribution information on taxa that have been globally evaluated using the IUCN Red List Categories and Criteria. This system is designed to determine the relative risk of extinction, and the main purpose of the IUCN Red List is to catalogue and highlight those taxa that are facing a higher risk of global extinction (i.e. those listed as Critically Endangered, Endangered and Vulnerable). The IUCN Red List also includes information on taxa that are categorized as Extinct or Extinct in the Wild; on taxa that cannot be evaluated because of insufficient information (i.e. are Data Deficient); and on taxa that are either close to meeting the threatened thresholds or that would be threatened were it not for an ongoing taxon-specific conservation programme (i.e. are Near Threatened).
    Available from: http://www.iucnredlist.org/ [Accessed 25 May 2011]
    10. IUCN/SSC Invasive Species Specialist Group (ISSG)., 2010. A Compilation of Information Sources for Conservation Managers.
            摘要: This compilation of information sources can be sorted on keywords for example: Baits & Lures, Non Target Species, Eradication, Monitoring, Risk Assessment, Weeds, Herbicides etc. This compilation is at present in Excel format, this will be web-enabled as a searchable database shortly. This version of the database has been developed by the IUCN SSC ISSG as part of an Overseas Territories Environmental Programme funded project XOT603 in partnership with the Cayman Islands Government - Department of Environment. The compilation is a work under progress, the ISSG will manage, maintain and enhance the database with current and newly published information, reports, journal articles etc.
    11. Lever, C. 2001. The Cane Toad: the history and ecology of a successful colonist. Westbury Publishing, West Yorkshire. 230pp.
            摘要: An extremely comprehensive text on all aspects of cane toad ecology and history. Has very detailed coverage of all the locations where cane toads have been introduced. An excellent resource for further information.
    13. Narayan, E.; Christi, K.; Morley, C.; Trevenen, P., 2008. Sexual dimorphism in the cane toad Bufo marinus: a quantitative comparison of visual inspection methods for sexing individuals. The Herpetological Journal, Volume 18, Number 1, January 2008 , pp. 63-65(3)
            摘要: A study was conducted to determine whether simple morphological characteristics could be used to rapidly determine the sex of cane toads. We found that four characteristics reliably allowed rapid assessment of sex: skin texture on the dorsal surface, skin colour on the dorsal surface, the presence of a creamy-coloured stripe along the dorsal margin and the presence of vocal sac openings. These criteria were tested by an assessment of use by both experienced and novice operators and were shown to be reliable for sexing cane toads that were large enough to assess morphological characteristics reliably (individuals with a snout-vent length exceeding 50 mm). Of the four techniques, the presence of vocal sac openings proved to be the most reliable. Such techniques may be used for a number of purposes, and are particularly useful during conservation projects that attempt to eradicate or reduce the effects of this invasive alien species on local ecosystems.
    14. Natural Resources and Water (NRW), 2006. Fact sheet: Cane toad Bufo marinus Queensland Government Dept. of Natural Resources and Water
    16. Page, Amanda; Win Kirkpatrick and Marion Massam, July 2008, Cane Toad (Bufo marinus) risk assessments for Australia, Department of Agriculture and FoodWestern Australia.
            摘要: Models for assessing the risk that exotic vertebrates could establish in Australia have been developed for mammals, birds (Bomford 2003; Bomford 2006, 2008), reptiles and amphibians (Bomford 2006, 2008; Bomford et al. 2005). These Risk Assessment models have been further explored by Western Australia Department of Agriculture & Food (DAFWA) to confirm that they reasonably predict public safety, establishment and pest risks across a full range of exotic species and risk levels. Mammals and birds were assessed for the pest risk they pose if introduced to Australia, by calculating Vertebrate Pests Committee (VPC) Threat Categories. These categories incorporate risk of establishing populations in the wild, risk of causing public harm, and risk of becoming a pest (eg causing agricultural damage, competing with native fauna, etc). The 7-factor Australian Bird and Mammal Model was used for these assessments.
    19. Wilson, Colin, Wildlife Management Officer, Department of Infrastructure, Planning and Environment, Parks & Wildlife Service, Northern Territory, Australia.
            摘要: Compilor of original GISD profile of Chromoleana odorata.

         结果页: 1  


ISSG Landcare Research NBII IUCN University of Auckland