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   Arundo donax (草)  English  français   
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         管理信息

    预防措施 澳洲的芦竹(Arundo donax)濒危风险评估 ,执行者是太平洋岛屿濒危生态系统[PIER],使用澳洲风险评估系统(Pheloung, 1995), 结果是:建议此植物需要较进一步的评估。

    化学方法:小族群能经由移除根状茎而控制,但是通常需要使用水生除草剂 (例如 glyphosate) 削减树叶或树枝来控制。因为 芦竹(Arundo donax)会向下游传布,最好的控制方法是从上游开始向下游进行。一旦建立族群,耐旱力很强。

    生物方法:最近开始研究使用昆虫或病原体进行生物控制。 English  français   



         地点特有的管理信息
    California
    The California Exotic Pest Plant Council lists Arundo donax as one of the most invasive pest plants in southern California (Christman, 2003). Team Arundo del Norte is a forum of local, state, and federal organizations dedicated to the control of Arundo donax (giant reed), where it threatens rivers, creeks, and wetlands in Central and Northern California. The organization formed in the summer of 1996. The Team meets several times per year in the Sacramento area to explore opportunities for information exchange and partnerships in support of the ongoing work of eradication of this harmful weed (McWilliams, 2004).
    Cuatro Ciénegas
    The appearance of A. donax in the middle of the Chihuahuan Desert in México, in an important natural protected area of springs and other aquatic systems that harbors a unique, diverse and highly endemic biota, prompted collaborations among researchers, managers and the local community. McGaugh and colleagues have reported on the process of analysing the potential impacts of this new invasive species and have discussed various management techniques. In conclusion, to protect the unique ecosystem in the APFFCC and surrounding areas, the authors of this paper and the majority of the participants of the 2005 Cuatro Ciénegas Arundo Control Workshop concur that Arundo must be controlled. The alternative, to allow it to persist in the area and invade beyond control, is inadvisable given the species' invasion history throughout North America. In addition, as in many areas of the world invaded by Arundo, there is a threshold beyond which no amount of resources or human hours will bring the species under control. Arundo in Cuatro Ciénegas represents an invasive species at the initial stages of invasion. It seems most likely that control will require careful and educated application of a glyphosate-based wetland approved herbicide, probably late in the flowering season (October) (Bell 1997, Monsanto 2002, in McGaugh et al. 2006). For more detailed recommendations made by experts please see McGaugh et al. 2006.
    Nelson
    A. donax was designated as a 'Total control pest' in the previous strategy because it was thought to have a limited distribution. TDC (2001) designates A. donax as a 'Regional surveillance pest'. The strategy has its effect over the combined area that lies within the administrative boundaries of the Tasman District Council and Nelson City Council. The threat posed by A. donax is also not considered to be as high as other environmental pests.The coastal area from Pakawau to Farewell Spit is assessed as the area under the greates risk from infestation. Surveillance and control therefore is being carried out mostly in this area. The objective of the strategy is to promote the control of A. donax to protect biodiversity values. Please see Hierarchy of Plant Designations for an explanation of designation terminology.
    New South Wales
    Arundo donax is only declared noxious in the Sydney region of NSW. Arundo but has rarely been targeted in weed control programs in Australia.

    Several authors are calling for the use of A. donax as a biofuel producer in Australia (Williams et al. Undated), however, this may result in increased escape of the weed into the wild, increased weediness and increased negative impacts (Williams et al. Undated).

    New Zealand
    Physical Control: Grazing may be effective against Arundo. In terms of disposal, slashed vegetation can be left to rot, be mulched or composted.
    Chemical Control: Arundo may be sprayed with Glyphosate and a penetrant. The Rate for a handgun is: 1 litre Gylphosate + 200 mls Penetrant/100 litres water; and for a knapsack: 100 mls Gylphosate + 20 mls Penetrant/10 litres water. This control technique does not stop regrowth and follow-up is required. If Arundo infestation is amongst other desirable plants Gallant herbicide may be used as it is selective for Poaceae. See label for application rates.
    Queensland
    A weed risk assessment study of Arundo donax for Queensland, Australia was conducted by Csurhes (2009). The study concluded that to conclude that "A. donax has the potential to become a significant weed in certain riparian habitats in Queensland, as it has done elsewhere in the world. Areas most at risk appear to be well-drained soils associated with disturbed riparian (freshwater) habitats in the subtropics".
    Rio Grande do Norte
    A study done in 2008 revealed that the wasp, Tetramesa romana, native to Europe, has the potential to significantly impact the growth and continued expansion of A. donax. T. romana was found to be specific to the genus Arundo and is unlikely to harm native or cultivated plants in the Americas (Goolsby, 2009).
    QuickBird satellite imagery combined with image processing can be used successfully for distinguishing giant reed infestations along the Rio Grande in southwest Texas (Everitt et al, 2005).
    South Africa
    In South Africa, A. donax is listed as a Category 1 weed meaning it is a declared weed which must be controlled (Milton, 2004).
    Taranaki Region (North Island)
    A. donax is classified as an 'Eradication pest plant' in the in the 'The Pest Management Strategy for Taranaki'. 'Eradication pest plants' are pest plants of limited distribution or density in the region and for which the long-term goal is eradication. Each pest plant has a management programme according to its designation. These programmes are summarised in the series of bulletins 'Pest Plant Facts'. Please see Giant reed: A. donax for pest plant facts and management programmes.
    Tasman District
    Arundo donax was designated as a 'Total control pest' in the previous strategy because it was thought to have a limited distribution. TDC (2001) designates A. donax as a 'Regional surveillance pest'. The strategy has its effect over the combined area that lies within the administrative boundaries of the Tasman District Council and Nelson City Council. The threat posed by A. donax is also not considered to be as high as other environmental pests.The coastal area from Pakawau to Farewell Spit is assessed as the area under the greates risk from infestation. Surveillance and control therefore is being carried out mostly in this area. The objective of the strategy is to promote the control of A. donax to protect biodiversity values. Please see Hierarchy of Plant Designations for an explanation of designation terminology.


         管理资源 /链接

    1. Aguiar, Francisca C.; Ferreira, M. Teresa; Albuquerque, Antonio; Moreira, Ilidio., 2007. Alien and endemic flora at reference and non-reference sites in Mediterranean-type streams in Portugal. Aquatic Conservation. 17(4). JUN 2007. 335-347.
    2. Ambrose, Richard F. & Philip W. Rundel., 2007. Influence of Nutrient Loading on the Invasion of an Alien Plant Species, Giant Reed (Arundo donax), in Southern California Riparian Ecosystems. University of California Water Resources CenterTechnical Completion Reports (University of California, Multi-Campus Research Unit)
    5. Boland, John M,. 2006. The importance of layering in the rapid spread of Arundo donax (giant reed). Madrono. 53(4). OCT-DEC 2006. 303-312.
    6. Boose, A. B., 1999. Environmental effects on asexual reproduction in Arundo donax. Weed Research. 39(2). April, 1999. 117-127.
    9. Decruyenaere, Joseph G.; Holt, Jodie S., 2001. Seasonality of clonal propagation in giant reed. Weed Science. 49(6). November-December, 2001. 760-767.
    10. Decruyenaere, Joseph G.; Holt, Jodie S., 2005. Ramet demography of a clonal invader, Arundo donax (Poaceae), in Southern California. Plant & Soil. 277(1-2). DEC 2005. 41-52.
    16. Everitt, J. H.; Yang, C.; Deloach, C. J., 2005. Remote sensing of giant reed with QuickBird satellite imagery. Journal of Aquatic Plant Management. 43 JUL 2005. 81-85
    19. Goolsby, J.A., Moran, P. Host range of Tetramesa romana Walker (Hymenoptera: Eurytomidae), a potential biological control of giant reed, Arundo donax L. in North America. Biological Control (2009), doi:10.1016/j.biocontrol.2009.01.019
    22. IUCN/SSC Invasive Species Specialist Group (ISSG)., 2010. A Compilation of Information Sources for Conservation Managers.
            摘要: This compilation of information sources can be sorted on keywords for example: Baits & Lures, Non Target Species, Eradication, Monitoring, Risk Assessment, Weeds, Herbicides etc. This compilation is at present in Excel format, this will be web-enabled as a searchable database shortly. This version of the database has been developed by the IUCN SSC ISSG as part of an Overseas Territories Environmental Programme funded project XOT603 in partnership with the Cayman Islands Government - Department of Environment. The compilation is a work under progress, the ISSG will manage, maintain and enhance the database with current and newly published information, reports, journal articles etc.
    23. Jones, W. A; Sforza, R., 2007. The European Biological Control Laboratory: an existing infrastructure for biological control of weeds in Europe. Bulletin OEPP. 37(1). APR 2007. 163-165.
    24. Khudamrongsawat, Jenjit; Tayyar, Rana; Holt, Jodie S., 2004. Genetic diversity of giant reed (Arundo donax) in the Santa Ana River, California. Weed Science. 52(3). May 2004. 395-405.
    30. Quinn L.D. and J.S. Holt 2008. Ecological correlates of invasion by Arundo donax in three southern California riparian habitats. Biological Invasions 10, 591-601.
    31. Quinn L.D. and J.S. Holt 2009. Restoration for resistance to invasion by giant reed (Arundo donax). Invasive Plant Science and Management 2, 279-291.
    32. Quinn, Lauren D; Rauterkus, Michael A; Holt, Jodie S., 2007. Effects of nitrogen enrichment and competition on growth and spread of giant reed (Arundo donax). Weed Science. 55(4). JUL-AUG 2007. 319-326.
    34. Rouget, Mathieu., David M. Richardson, Jeanne L. Nel, David C. Le Maitre, Benis Egoh and Theresa Mgidi., 2004. Mapping the Potential Ranges of Major Plant Invaders in South Africa, Lesotho and Swaziland Using Climatic Suitability. Diversity and Distributions, Vol. 10, No. 5/6, Special Issue: Plant Invasion Ecology (Sep. - Nov., 2004), pp. 475-484
    36. Spencer D.F., R.K. Stocker, P.S. Liow, L.C. Whitehand, G.G. Ksander, A.M. Fox, J.H. Everitt and L.D. Quinn 2008. Comparative growth of giant reed (Arundo donax L.) from Florida, Texas, and California. Journal of Aquatic Plant Management 46, 89-96. Quinn L.D. and J.S. Holt 2009. Restoration for resistance to invasion by giant reed (Arundo donax). Invasive Plant Science and Management 2, 279-291.
    37. Spencer, David F; Ksander, Gregory G., 2006. Estimating Arundo donax ramet recruitment using degree-day based equations. Aquatic Botany. 85(4). NOV 2006. 284-290.
    38. Spencer, David F; Ksander, Gregory G.; Whitehand, Linda C., 2005. Spatial and temporal variation in RGR and leaf quality of a clonal riparian plant: Arundo donax. Aquatic Botany. 81(1). JAN 05. 27-36.
    39. Spencer, David; Sher, Anna; Thornby, David; Liow, Pui-Sze; Ksander, Gregory; Tan, Wailun., 2007. Non-destructive assessment of Arundo donax (Poaceae) leaf quality. Journal of Freshwater Ecology. 22(2). JUN 2007. 277-285.
    40. Swaziland's Alien Plants Database., Undated. Arundo donax
            摘要: A database of Swaziland's alien plant species.
    41. Team Arunde del Norte
            摘要: Team Arundo del Norte is a forum of local, state, and federal organizations dedicated to the control of Arundo donax (giant reed), where it threatens rivers, creeks, and wetlands in Central and Northern California. The organization formed in the summer of 1996 (see TAdN History). The Team meets several times per year in the Sacramento area to explore opportunities for information exchange and partnerships in support of the ongoing work of eradication of this harmful weed. This website is an important part of the Team's mission to facilitate networking. We hope you find useful information and contacts at this site and by joining the discussions on the TAdN email listserv.
    Available from: http://teamarundo.org/ [Accessed 27 February 2009]
    43. Thornby, David; Spencer, David; Hanan, Jim; Sher, Anna., 2007. L-DONAX, a growth model of the invasive weed species, Arundo donax L. Aquatic Botany. 87(4). NOV 2007. 275-284.
    44. Thuiller, Wilfried; Richardson, David M.; Rouget, Mathieu; Proches, Serban; Wilson, John R. U., 2006. Interactions between environment, species traits, and human uses describe patterns of plant invasions. Ecology (Washington D C). 87(7). JUL 2006. 1755-1769.
    46. Van Wilgen, B. W.; Nel, J. L.; Rouget, M., 2007. Invasive alien plants and South African rivers: a proposed approach to the prioritization of control operations. Freshwater Biology. 52(4). APR 2007. 711-723.
    49. Wijte, Antonia H. B. M.; Mizutani, Takayuki; Motamed, Erica R.; Merryfield, Margaret L.; Miller, Dennis E.; Alexander, Donna E., 2005. Temperature and endogenous factors cause seasonal patterns in rooting by stem fragments of the invasive giant reed, Arundo donax (Poaceae). International Journal of Plant Sciences. 166(3). MAY 05. 507-517.

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ISSG Landcare Research NBII IUCN University of Auckland