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   Anoplolepis gracilipes (insect)  français     
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         Management Information

    Preventative measures: The Pacific Ant Prevention Programme is a proposal prepared for the Pacific Plant Protection Organisation and Regional Technical Meeting for Plant Protection. This plan aims to prevent the red imported fire ant and other invasive ant species from establishing within or spreading between countries in the Pacific.

    A detailed pest risk assessment for the eight species ranked as having the highest potential risk to New Zealand was prepared as part of 'The Invasive Ant Risk Assessment Project', Harris et al. 2005., for Biosecurity New Zealand by Landcare Research. Anoplolepis gracilipes scored as a high-risk threat to New Zealand. The Invasive ant risk assessment for A. gracilipes can be viewed at Anoplolepis gracilipes risk assessment. Please see Anoplolepis gracilipes information sheet for more information on biology, distribution, pest status and control technologies.

    Chemical: The toxic principles in ant baits include the so-called “stomach” poisons, hydramethylnon (Maxforce, Amdro), sulfuramid and sodium tetraborate decahydrate (Borax). Insect Growth Regulators (IGRs) disrupt development and include compounds such as methoprene and fenoxycarb. Stomach poisons work relatively fast compared to IGRs, but may sometimes work too quickly, eliminating workers before the insecticide can be distributed throughout the entire colony. One promising approach is to use pheromones (compounds produced by a species that regulate their own behaviour) as “biopesticides” to disrupt the reproduction by the queen (O’Dowd et al. 1999). Baits should be designed with the foraging strategies of the specific ant species in mind. Determining the preferred size, type and dispersal pattern of the bait is an important step. Nesting, foraging and behavioural traits of the ant should all be taken into consideration. The use of appropriately designed baits is needed to reduce the cost of toxin use to native ant populations and non-target fauna (McGlynn, 1999).

    Please follow this link for more detailed information on the management of the yellow crazy ant compiled by the ISSG. français     



         Location Specific Management Information
    Bird Is.
    The current management of crazy ants on Bird island comprises the spraying of insecticide around habitations and the sooty tern nesting area. Gerlach (2004) suggests habitat management as a means of reducing crazy ant abundance. Crazy ants are mainly found in coconut plantations as these provide shade and nesting places for the ant. The natural regenerating woodland consisting mainly of P. grandis is a more open structure that is less suitable for A. gracilipes. Removing the remaining coconut trees and facilitating the regeneration of natural woodland would reduce crazy ant populations.
    Cairns
    Previous infestations of crazy ants have been successfully eradicated at Cairns and Townsville through a coordinated government response.
    New South Wales
    The invasion of the yellow crazy ant into NSW is listed as a as a key threatening process. The Environment Protection and Biodiversity Conservation Act 1999 (EPBC Act) Australia provides for the identification and listing of key threatening processes. A process can be listed as a key threatening process if it could: cause a native species or ecological community to become eligible for inclusion in a threatened list (other than the conservation dependent category); or cause an already listed threatened species or threatened ecological community to become more endangered; or adversely affect two or more listed threatened species or threatened ecological communities. The assessment of a threatening process as a key threatening process is the first step to addressing the impact of a particular threat under Commonwealth law.

    The crazy ant has been intercepted at least 161 times since 1988 in Australian ports, with 40% of the interceptions in NSW ports (DECC, 2005).

    The crazy ant infestation on Goodwood Island on the NSW North Coast is subject to an eradication programme, using poisoned baits, being carried out by the NSW Department of Primary Industries' Biosecurity, Compliance and Mine Safety Directorate and the Department of Environment and Conservation (DECC, 2005).

    New Zealand
    Harris and Barker (2007) report that "New Zealand is probably too cold for A. gracilipes and S. geminata, so management of incursions of these species is probably unnecessary.
    Northeast Arnhem Land
    The eradication project in NE Arnhem Land is a collaboration between Dhimurru Land Management Aboriginal Corporation, CSIRO, Alcan Gove, Department of Environment and Heritage, Northern Territory Government, Indigenous Land Corporation and the Northern Land Council. The project which began in 2004, is expected to last for 4 years.

    The yellow crazy ant eradication project in northeast Arnhem Land is the largest eradication project for this ant on mainland Australia. In the interest of sharing knowledge of invasive ant management, Dr. Ben Hoffmann has provided a brief project description as well as the project protocols here for public use. The project protocols are dynamic, and as such are updated from time to time as new knowledge is obtained or as requirements change.

    Please follow these links to read Brief Project Description and Project protocols.

    Any queries relating to these documents can be directed to Ben.Hoffmann@csiro.au

    Northern Territory
    The eradication campaign should be starting soon, and will follow the protocols developed for the control of this ant on Christmas Island.
    Nu’ulua
    An operational plan to eradicate Pacific rats is being prepared by David Butler Associates Ltd in consultation with the Ministry of Natural Resources, Environment and Marine (Samoa) and Pacific Invasive Initiative (PII) staff. In addition to eradicating rats it is proposed to experimentally reduce yellow crazy ant (A. gracilipes) densities on Nu’ulua Island.
    Queensland
    The crazy ant is a Class 1 declared pest animal in Quennsland. A Class 1 pest is one that is not commonly present in Queensland, and if introduced would cause an adverse economic, environmental or social impact. Class 1 pests established in Queensland are subject to eradication from the state. Landowners must take reasonable steps to keep land free of Class 1 pests.

    Incursions which have been detected are monitored and re-treated as and when required. The treatment outlined by the Department of Natural Resources, and Water; Governement of Queensland is as follows:

    Outbreaks of crazy ants can be controlled and may be eradicated with baits treated with the insecticide Fipronil, if they are detected before any large scale spread occurs. Protein bait pellets made of commercial fishmeal laced with insecticide are spread in the vicinity of the nests. The foraging ants then collect the pellets and carry them back to the colony. Once introduced to the nest, the bait is shared around the colony, eventually being given to the queens. As the queens are the only ants able to reproduce, the death of the queen ensures that the colony is destroyed. The baits look like small chook pellets and are scattered over grassed and dirt areas. Where it is not possible to scatter the pellets bait stations will be used. The bait stations will be either white discs (10cm across) or a piece of black tube (10cm long), covered by a fine steel mesh and securely fixed to the ground to ensure that the stations are not interfered with by dogs and other wildlife. The bait stations will be removed when the ant population has been destroyed. Signs will indicate where bait stations have been laid. Please follow this link for more details Crazy ants: Warning



         Management Resources/Links

    2. AntWeb, 2006. Anoplolepis gracilipes
            Summary: AntWeb illustrates ant diversity by providing information and high quality color images of many of the approximately 10,000 known species of ants. AntWeb currently focusses on the species of the Nearctic and Malagasy biogeographic regions, and the ant genera of the world. Over time, the site is expected to grow to describe every species of ant known. AntWeb provides the following tools: Search tools, Regional Lists, In-depth information, Ant Image comparision tool PDF field guides maps on AntWeb and Google Earth and Ant genera of the world slide show.
    AntWeb is available from: http://antweb.org/about.jsp [Accessed 20 April 2006]
    The species page is available from: http://antweb.org/getComparison.do?rank=species&genus=anoplolepis&name=gracilipes&project=&project= [Accessed 2 May 2006]
    3. Commonwealth of Australia. 2006a. Threat abatement plan to reduce the impacts of tramp ants on biodiversity in Australia and its territories, Department of the Environment and Heritage, Canberra.
            Summary: This plan establishes a national framework to guide and coordinate Australia’s response to tramp ants, identifying the research, management, and other actions necessary to ensure the long term survival of native species and ecological communities affected by tramp ants. It identifies six national priority species as an initial, but flexible, list on which to focus attention. They are the red imported fi re ant (Solenopsis invicta), tropical fire ant (S. geminata), little fire ant (Wasmannia auropunctata), African big-headed ant (Pheidole megacephala), yellow crazy ant (Anoplolepis gracilipes), and Argentine ant (Linepithema humile).
    Available from: http://www.environment.gov.au/biodiversity/threatened/publications/tap/pubs/tramp-ants.pdf [Accessed 17 November 2009]
    8. Haines, I. H. and Haines, J. B. 1978. Pest status of the crazy ant, Anoplolepis longipes (Jerdon) (Hymenoptera: Formicidae), in the Seychelles. Bull. Entomol. Res. 68: 627-638.
    9. Haines, I. H. and Haines, J. B. 1979. Residual sprays for the control of the crazy ant Anoplolepis longipes (Jerd.) in the Seychelles. Pesticide Science 10: 201-206.
    10. Haines, I. H. and Haines, J. B. 1979. Toxic bait for the control of Anoplolepis longipes (Jerdon) (Hymenoptera: Formicidae) in the Seychelles. I. The basic attractant carrier, its production and weathering properties. Bulletin of Entomological Research 69:
    11. Haines, I. H. and Haines, J. B. 1979. Toxic bait for the control of Anoplolepis longipes (Jerdon) (Hymenoptera: Formicidae) in the Seychelles. II. Effectiveness, specificity and cost of baiting in field applications. Bulletin of Entomological Research 69:
    12. Haines, I. H. and Haines, J. B. 1979. Toxic bait for the control of Anoplolepis longipes (Jerdon) (Hymenoptera: Formicidae) in the Seychelles. III. Selection of toxicants. Bulletin of Entomological Research 69: 203-211.
    13. Haines, I. H., Haines, J. B. and Cherrett, J. M. 1994. The impact and control of the Crazy ant, Anoplolepis longipes (Jerd.), in the Seychelles. pp. 206–218 in Williams, D. F. (ed.), Exotic ants. Biology, impact, and control of introduced species. Westview, Boulder, CO.
    14. Harris, R.; Abbott, K.; Barton, K.; Berry, J.; Don, W.; Gunawardana, D.; Lester, P.; Rees, J.; Stanley, M.; Sutherland, A.; Toft, R. 2005: Invasive ant pest risk assessment project for Biosecurity New Zealand. Series of unpublished Landcare Research contract reports to Biosecurity New Zealand. BAH/35/2004-1.
            Summary: The invasive ant risk assessment project, prepared for Biosecurity New Zealand by Landcare Research, synthesises information on the ant species that occur in New Zealand (native and introduced species), and on invasive ants that pose a potential threat to New Zealand.
    There is a great deal of information in this risk assessment on invasive ant species that is of global interest, including; biology, distribution, pest status, control technologies.
    The assessment project has five sections.1) The Ants of New Zealand: information sheets on all native and introduced ants established in New Zealand 2) Preliminary invasive ant risk assessment: risk scorecard to quantify the threat to New Zealand of 75 ant species. 3) Information sheets on invasive ant threats: information sheets on all ant species scored as medium to high risk (n = 39). 4) Pest risk assessment: A detailed pest risk assessment for the eight species ranked as having the highest potential risk to New Zealand (Anoplolepis gracilipes, Lasius neglectus, Monomorium destructor, Paratrechina longicornis, Solenopsis geminata, Solenopsis richteri, Tapinoma melanocephalum, Wasmannia auropunctata) 5) Ranking of high risk species: ranking of the eight highest risk ant species in terms of the risks of entry, establishment, spread, and detrimental consequences.
    NB. The red imported fire ant (Solenopsis invicta) is considered to be the worst ant pest in the world. However, Solenopsis invicta was specifically excluded from consideration in this risk assessment as this species has already been subject to detailed consideration by Biosecurity New Zealand
    (This invasive ant pest risk assessment was funded by Biosecurity New Zealand and Foundation for Research, Science and Technology. Undertaken by Landcare Research in collaboration with Victoria University of Wellington and Otago Museum)
    Available from: http://www.landcareresearch.co.nz/research/biocons/invertebrates/Ants/ant_pest_risk.asp [Accessed 20 May 2007]
    15. Harris, R.J. & Barker, G. (2007). Relative risk of invasive ants (Hymenoptera: Formicidae) establishing in New Zealand. New Zealand Journal of Zoology 34: 161-178.
    16. Hoffmann, B., pers.comm 2007a. North east Arnhem Land YCA Eradication Protocols
            Summary: The eradication project in NE Arnhem Land is a collaboration between Dhimurru Land Management Aboriginal Corporation, CSIRO, Alcan Gove, Department of Environment and Heritage, Northern Territory Government, Indigenous Land Corporation and the Northern Land Council. The project which began in 2004, is expected to last for 4 years.

    The yellow crazy ant eradication project in northeast Arnhem Land is the largest eradication project for this ant on mainland Australia. In the interest of sharing knowledge of invasive ant management, Dr. Ben Hoffmann has provided a brief project description as well as the project protocols here for public use. The project protocols are dynamic, and as such are updated from time to time as new knowledge is obtained or as requirements change.
    Any queries relating to these documents can be directed to Ben.Hoffmann@csiro.au

    17. Hoffmann, B., pers.comm., 2007b. North east Arnhem Land Yellow crazy ant eradication project
            Summary: The eradication project in NE Arnhem Land is a collaboration between Dhimurru Land Management Aboriginal Corporation, CSIRO, Alcan Gove, Department of Environment and Heritage, Northern Territory Government, Indigenous Land Corporation and the Northern Land Council. The project which began in 2004, is expected to last for 4 years.

    The yellow crazy ant eradication project in northeast Arnhem Land is the largest eradication project for this ant on mainland Australia. In the interest of sharing knowledge of invasive ant management, Dr. Ben Hoffmann has provided a brief project description as well as the project protocols here for public use. The project protocols are dynamic, and as such are updated from time to time as new knowledge is obtained or as requirements change.
    Any queries relating to these documents can be directed to Ben.Hoffmann@csiro.au

    18. Holway, D.A., Lach, L., Suarez, A.V., Tsutsui, N.D. and Case, T.J. 2002. The Causes and Consequences of Ant Invasions, Annu. Rev. Ecol. Syst. 33: 181-233.
    19. IUCN 2010. IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Version 2010.4.
            Summary: The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species provides taxonomic, conservation status and distribution information on taxa that have been globally evaluated using the IUCN Red List Categories and Criteria. This system is designed to determine the relative risk of extinction, and the main purpose of the IUCN Red List is to catalogue and highlight those taxa that are facing a higher risk of global extinction (i.e. those listed as Critically Endangered, Endangered and Vulnerable). The IUCN Red List also includes information on taxa that are categorized as Extinct or Extinct in the Wild; on taxa that cannot be evaluated because of insufficient information (i.e. are Data Deficient); and on taxa that are either close to meeting the threatened thresholds or that would be threatened were it not for an ongoing taxon-specific conservation programme (i.e. are Near Threatened).
    Available from: http://www.iucnredlist.org/ [Accessed 25 May 2011]
    21. Lewis, T., Cherrett, J. M., Haines, I., Haines, J. B. and Mathias, P. L. 1976. The crazy ant (Anoplolepis longipes (Jerd.) (Hymenoptera, Formicidae)) in Seychelles, and its chemical control. Bull. Entomol. Res. 66: 97-111.
    22. McGlynn, T.P. 1999. The Worldwide Transfer of Ants: Geographical Distribution and Ecological Invasions, Journal of Biogeography 26(3): 535-548.
    23. McGregor, A. J. and Moxon, J. E. 1985. Potential for biological control of tent building species of ants associated with Phytophthora palmivora pod rot of cocoa in Papua New-Guinea. Annals of Applied Biology 107(2): 271-278.
    24. Ness, J. H and Bronstein, J. L. 2004. The Effects of Invasive Ants on Prospective ant Mutualists, Biological Invasions 6: 445-461.
    26. O’Dowd, D. J., Green, P. T. and Lake, P. S. 1999. Status, Impact, and Recommendations for Research and Management of Exotic Invasive Ants in Christmas Island National Park. Report to Environment Australia.
    27. O’Dowd, D.J., Green, P.T. and Lake, P.S. 1999. Status, Impact, and Recommendations for Research and Management of Exotic Invasive Ants in Christmas Island National Park. Centre for the Analysis and Management of Biological Invasions: Clayton (Victoria, Australia).
    28. O'Dowd, D. J. 1999. Crazy ant attack. Wingspan 9(2): 7.
    29. O'Dowd, D. J., Green, P. T. and Lake, P. S. 1999. Status, impact, and recommendations for research and management of exotic invasive ants in Christmas Island National Park. Darwin, Northern Territory, Environment Australia: 50 pp, 8 figures, 2 plates.
    30. Oi, D.H., Vail, K.M. and Williams, D.F. 2000. Bait distribution among multiple colonies of Pharaoh ants (Hymenoptera: Formicidae), Journal of Economic Entomology 93(4): 1247–1255.
    32. Rao, N. S. and Veeresh, G. K. 1990. Management of crazy ant, Anoplolepis longipes (Jerdon). Indian J. Plant Prot. 18: 105-8.
    33. Reimer, N. J. 1994. Distribution and impact of alien ants in vulnerable Hawaiian ecosystems. In Exotic ants: biology, impact, and control of introduced species. Williams, D. F. (ed) Boulder, Colorado, Westview Press: 11-22.
    34. Sarnat, E. M. (December 4, 2008) PIAkey: Identification guide to ants of the Pacific Islands, Edition 2.0, Lucid v. 3.4. USDA/APHIS/PPQ Center for Plant Health Science and Technology and University of California — Davis.
            Summary: PIAkey (Pacific Invasive Ant key) is an electronic guide designed to assist users identify invasive ant species commonly encountered in the Pacific Island region. The guide covers four subfamilies, 20 genera and 44 species.
    The primary tool offered by PIAkey is an interactive key designed using Lucid3 software. In addition to being fully illustrated, the Lucid key allows users to enter at multiple character points, skip unknown characters, and find the most efficient path for identifying the available taxa. Each species is linked to its own web page. These species pages, or factsheets, are linked to an illustrated glossary of morphological terms, and include the following seven sections: 1) Overview of the species; 2) Diagnostic chart illustrating a unique combination of identification characters; 3) Comparison chart illustrating differences among species of similar appearance; 4) Video clip of the species behavior at food baits (where available); 5) Image gallery that includes original specimen images and live images (where available); 6) Nomenclature section detailing the taxonomic history of the species, and 7) Links and references section for additional literature and online resources.
    Available from: http://www.lucidcentral.org/keys/v3/PIAkey/index.html [Accessed 17 December 2008]
    36. Stanaway, M. A., Zalucki, M. P., Gillespie, P. S. and Rodriquez, C. M. 2001. Pest risk assessment of insects in sea cargo containers. Australian Journal of Entomology 40: 180-192.
    38. Veeresh, G. K. 1987. Pest status of crazy ant Anoplolepis longipes (Jerdon) in Karnataka, India, and causes for its outbreak. In Chemistry and biology of social insects. J. Eder and H. Rembold. Munich, Peperny: 667-668.
    39. Veeresh, G. K. and Gubbaiah 1984. A report on the 'Crazy ant' (Anoplolepis longipes Jerdon) menace in Karnataka. J Soil Biol Ecol 4: 65-73.
    40. Walker, K. 2006. Yellow crazy ant (Anoplolepis gracilipes) Pest and Diseases Image Library. Updated on 29/08/2006 12:02:55 PM.
            Summary: PaDIL (Pests and Diseases Image Library) is a Commonwealth Government initiative, developed and built by Museum Victoria's Online Publishing Team, with support provided by DAFF (Department of Agriculture, Fisheries and Forestry) and PHA (Plant Health Australia), a non-profit public company. Project partners also include Museum Victoria, the Western Australian Department of Agriculture and the Queensland University of Technology. The aim of the project is: 1) Production of high quality images showing primarily exotic targeted organisms of plant health concern to Australia. 2) Assist with plant health diagnostics in all areas, from initial to high level. 3) Capacity building for diagnostics in plant health, including linkage developments between training and research organisations. 4) Create and use educational tools for training undergraduates/postgraduates. 5) Engender public awareness about plant health concerns in Australia. PaDIL is available from : http://www.padil.gov.au/aboutOverview.aspx, this page is available from: http://www.padil.gov.au/viewPestDiagnosticImages.aspx?id=84 [Accessed 6 October 2006]
    41. Way, M. J. 1953. The relationship between certain ant species with particular reference to biological control of the coreid, Theraptus spp. Bull. Entomol. Res. 44: 669-691.
    42. Way, M. J. and Khoo, K. C. 1992. Role of ants in pest management. Annu. Rev. Entomol. 37: 479-503.
    43. Williams, D. F. 1994. Exotic ants: biology, impact, and control of introduced species. Westview Press, Boulder, Colorado.

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ISSG Landcare Research NBII IUCN University of Auckland