Preventative measures: A two year study was undertaken for the Department of Environment and Heritage (Australia) by the Commonwealth Scientific and Industrial Research Organisation (CSIRO) to identify and rank introduced marine species found within Australian waters, and those not found within Australian waters. All of the non-native potential target species identified in this report are ranked as high, medium and low priority, based on their invasion potential and impact potential. Bugula neritina is identified as one of ten potential domestic target species most likely to be spread to uninfected bioregions by shipping. B. neritina is also identified as one of ten most damaging potential domestic target species, based on overall impact potential (economic and environmental). A hazard ranking of potential domestic target species based on invasion potential from infected to uninfected bioregions identifies B. neritina as a 'medium priority species' - these species have a reasonably high impact/or invasion potential.
For more details, please see Hayes et al. 2005.
The rankings determined in Hayes et al. 2005 will be used by the National Introduced Marine Pest Coordinating Group in Australia to assist in the development of national control plans which could include options for control, eradication and/or long term management.
It has been suggested that ballast water control measures be implemented to control the spread of B. nertina via the oyster aquaculture industry (PWSRCAC 2004).
Chemical: Copper-based treatments have been used to control many pest species. The attachment of B. neritina larvae to copper, mercury and control paint was investigated by Wisely (1962) who found that the numbers attaching to the control paint strips was seven times greater than the numbers attaching to copper, and twenty times greater than the numbers attaching to mercury (NIMPIS 2001). Introduction of B. neritina by
copper-painted vessels may be aided by a potential tolerance to toxicants (Piola and Johnston 2006).
1. Centre for Environment, Fisheries & Aquaculture Science (CEFAS)., 2008. Decision support tools-Identifying potentially invasive non-native marine and freshwater species: fish, invertebrates, amphibians.
Summary: The electronic tool kits made available on the Cefas page for free download are Crown Copyright (2007-2008). As such, these are freeware and may be freely distributed provided this notice is retained. No warranty, expressed or implied, is made and users should satisfy themselves as to the applicability of the results in any given circumstance. Toolkits available include 1) FISK- Freshwater Fish Invasiveness Scoring Kit (English and Spanish language version); 2) MFISK- Marine Fish Invasiveness Scoring Kit; 3) MI-ISK- Marine invertebrate Invasiveness Scoring Kit; 4) FI-ISK- Freshwater Invertebrate Invasiveness Scoring Kit and AmphISK- Amphibian Invasiveness Scoring Kit. These tool kits were developed by Cefas, with new VisualBasic and computational programming by Lorenzo Vilizzi, David Cooper, Andy South and Gordon H. Copp, based on VisualBasic code in the original Weed Risk Assessment (WRA) tool kit of P.C. Pheloung, P.A. Williams & S.R. Halloy (1999).
The decision support tools are available from: http://cefas.defra.gov.uk/our-science/ecosystems-and-biodiversity/non-native-species/decision-support-tools.aspx [Accessed 13 October 2011]
The guidance document is available from http://www.cefas.co.uk/media/118009/fisk_guide_v2.pdf [Accessed 13 January 2009].
3. Keough, M. J. and Ross, J. 1999. Introduced fouling species in Port Phillip Bay. In Marine Biological Invasions of Port Phillip Bay Victoria: 9-11. L., H. C., Campbell, M. L., Thresher, R. E. and Martin, R. B. (Eds.). Hobart: CSIRO Marine Research.
4. Mackie, J. A., Keough, M. J. and Christidis, L. 2006. Invasion patterns inferred from cytochrome oxidase I sequences in three bryozoans, Bugula neritina, Watersipora subtorquata, and Watersipora arcuata. Marine Biology 149: 285-295.
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