预防措施: 长期管理的做法可能包括修复栖息地，限制资源和教育公众。试图限制食物可能会困难重重，因为八哥的饮食多样化使其能够诉诸其它的食物来源，即使其偏爱食物被移除(汤姆斯 2004)。
物理方法：智能很高的八哥会学习避开传统的陷阱。澳洲国立大学的Dr Chris Tidemann提出一个假说：八哥能了解任何被陷阱困住的八哥的叫声，因此能避开陷阱 。讽刺地，目前澳洲试验使用的陷阱，是基于提供八哥另一个家的观念来设计； 藉由在笼中提供食物、庇护所与栖木。陷阱鼓励更多的八哥拜访进驻； 最后用二氧化碳杀死鸟 (汤姆斯 2004)。
综合管理：这可能是有希望行动的过程，侵入的鸟，时常伴随着人为的环境 (Lim Sodhi Brook and Soh 2003) 。
Shooting with a silenced air rifle and .22 rifle was used to complete myna eradication on Aride Island (Millet et al. 2004).
A common myna control programme was undertaken on Ascension in 2009 using traps. Trapping was conducted in three phases: first on rubbish dumps and water tanks (29 days), second on a Sooty Tern Colony (15 days) and finally, again on rubbish dumps and water tanks (9 days). Please follow this link to Saavedra, 2009- Final report of the campaign , for details on the control programme.
Auckland Region (North Island)
Integrated pest management: The common myna is declared a pest in the Auckland region. The Auckland Regional Pest Management Strategy (2002-2007) aims to minimise the adverse effects of the myna bird by promoting community awareness of their impacts and the control methods available. The ARC will also provide traps on a hire basis for myna control.
Legislation: Under the Biosecurity Act 1993, it is prohibited to sell or exhibit or breed the common myna.
There are active management programs aimed at controlling mynas in Australia.
Integrated Pest Management: Councils and community groups between Queensland and Victoria have been using the radio and press ads to encourage monitoring of the spread of the common myna (Thomas 2004). The Canberra Indian Myna Action Group has been set up with the aim of protecting Australian native birds and mammals from the threat posed by the common myna in the Canberra region.
Trapping: The highly intelligent myna quickly learns to avoid traditional traps. The type of trap currently being trialed and used in Australia is based on providing the mynas with food, shelter and perches in cages a few days prior to trapping. The traps encourage more mynas to visit and roost inside. The birds are eventually killed humanely with carbon dioxide (Thomas 2004).
Shooting: Some success in using shooting to control low density infestations has been reported in Australia by using a decoy person who leaves the shooting area (presumably after pre-feeding) carrying a stick, while the actual shooter stays behind.
Other: The Crop Gard is a bird repelling sound unit with three major sound categories: Electronic Scarecrow, Screech and Flower Fruit Scarer. These sounds can be played sequentially or in a completely random order. Random order is recommended to present a more chaotic sound to the birds, which is harder to adapt to. The Electronic Scarecrow sound has been getting good results in Australian vineyards and orchards.
Integrated Pest Management: The Canberra Indian Myna Action Group (CIMAG) is a non-profit community group that aims to protect Australia’s native birds and mammals from the threat posed by the common myna in the Canberra region. Their trapping and euthanasia program, endorsed by the RSPCA and the Australian Capital Territory Government, has been highly successful and has humanely removed over 12 000 Mynas from around Canberra in around 18 months. The program has led to a marked decline in common myna numbers in backyards and reserves, and has had a positive impact on local native biodiversity. CIMAG trappers are reporting a significant increase in small birds returning to backyards following myna trapping, and the return of rosellas to nesting boxes and tree hollows. The public can also participate in this activity. To know more, please contact CIMAG on 02 6231 7461 or firstname.lastname@example.org or visit their website Canberra Indian Myna Action Group. To help mitigate the impacts of mynas people are encouraged and advised to:
Trapping: The Tidemann Trap has been used very effectively to reduce numbers of mynas in Canberra suburbs. It is now commercially available and is also being used in many parts of eastern Australia (ACT 2). In sites that mynas are still colonising, the trap has been less successful and alternative strategies are needed (G. Brown Pers. Comm. ,). Trapping in general may be particularly difficult in areas that mynas are colonising because of their mobile and wary nature (D. Wattling Pers. Comm.,).
- Clear away food scraps outdoors;
- Feed pets indoors;
- Plant native shrubs to reduce open areas;
- Avoid planting trees with dense foliage, to discourage myna roosting;
- Block holes in roofs to stop mynas from nesting;
- On farms, cover feed bins and clean up spills.
The Tidemann Trap operates on the same principle as the Tindall Trap, but is more sophisticated, being a netting trap which allows mynas to gain access at ground level via baffled entrances. The upper part is a holding cage which provides cover, food, water, and a roost (Tidemann 2005). Preferred trap sites experience low levels of disturbance and should be open sites at least 3 meters from vegetation that can harbour predators. In Canberra the most effective baits were VIP Petfoods Megabite or chicken dog food rolls, provided as a pre-feed for 3 days before the base valves are installed. A canvas sleeve is used to enclose the holding section, which is then flooded with carbon dioxide to humanely kill captured birds (Tidemann 2005).
The Minimising Mynas Project tested selective, safe traps in Canberra backyards from August 2001 to October 2002. Plans are being finalised for an expanded trial in collaboration with Environment ACT and Canberra Ornithologists Group (COG). Trials to reduce myna numbers are also being planned in other areas of Australia, in concert with local government and nongovernment organizations (Tildemann 2007e). For more information on the trap and methods of humane killing of the myna please see: Tidemann, C. 2007f. Common Indian Myna Website > Trapping Mynas.
Netting: There are plans to trial netting at Canberra (Tidemann).
Research: Kate Grarock is undertaking a PhD research project at the Australian National University on the impact of common mynas on native birds and the impact of trapping activity, with the help of volunteers from the CIMAG and COG. For more information please visit Canberra Indian Myna Action Group > PhD Project on Indian Mynas.
Mynas have been eradicated from the 27 ha Cousin Island in the Seychelles using a combination of techniques.
Shooting with a silenced air rifle and .22 rifle was used to complete myna eradication (Millet et al. 2004). Four of the five birds that survived poisoning on Cousin Island were pre-fed and shot by an experienced shooter who was familiar with myna behaviour.
Millet et al. (2004) initiated the eradication of mynas from Denis Island in the Seychelles by using Starlacide DRC1339 following one week of pre-feeding with non-toxic boiled rice and grated coconut, which were effective baits. DRC1339 was then added to these baits and was also, at a later stage, dissolved in butter and spread onto bread, which was then placed around dwellings. Death of mynas occurs from uremic poisoning, 4 to 50 hours after poisoning (Millet et al. 2004).
Poisoning on Denis Island was highly effective, rapidly reducing myna numbers to low levels, and was followed by shooting. Shooting with a silenced air rifle and .22 rifle was used to greatly reduce myna numbers on Denis Island (Millet et al. 2004). The programme was halted, however, after rats were found to be present, and eradication was not completed.
Netting: Experience from Fiji suggests that mynas are very difficult to net (D. Wattling Pers. Comm.,).
Chemical: Alphachloralose paste is used for temporary local control of mynas in cooler climates and occasionally in the subtropics; it is used frequently in Fiji (D. Wattling Pers. Com).
The Crop Gard is a bird repelling sound unit with three major sound categories: Electronic Scarecrow, Screech and Flower Fruit Scarer. These sounds can be played sequentially or in a completely random order. Random order is recommended to present a more chaotic sound to the birds, which is harder to adapt to. The Electronic Scarecrow sound has been getting good results in Fiji strawberry fields (J. Savage Bird Gard 2004 Pers. Comm.).
Shooting with a silenced air rifle and .22 rifle was used to greatly reduce myna numbers on Fregate Island (Millet et al. 2004). On Fregate Island, hundreds of mynas were present and these were shot by a marksman using a .22 rifle at roosts, pre-roost gatherings, and feeding sites (papaya plantations, a piggery and a cattle corral). Techniques were adapted over a ten year period in response to reduced numbers and increasing wariness, for example, hides were used at feeding areas and at regular song posts. By November 2002, only an estimated 8 birds remained.
Common mynas were never been completely eradicated, largely due to the failure to continue with eradication efforts after reduction of the population. A combination of new methods, as well as methods that were at least partially successful in the past, were implemented to ensure complete eradication. This was achieved in February 2011 and took approximately eight months of regular effort from June 2010. Capture methods were adapted and changed for individual birds that had, or that developed an aversion to a particular method. Cage trapping using a commercially available trap was by far the most effective method of capture. A total of 745 birds were destroyed, along with 42 eggs (from the Abstract: Canning, 2011).
Measures being undertaken against the common myna in Israel around 2001 included (O. Hatzofe 2001 Pers. Comm.):
- Shooting with air rifle - this is the most affective and less time consuming way to eradicate a specific individual or a small population.
- Bow net/clapping net and or cannon net type - used to trap a large number of birds in their pre roosting concentration grounds. The Mynas are attracted by few individuals that are in a small cage at the center of this quick closing net.
- Mist nets at the roosting site.
- Removal of nests - after finding the nest, the trapper turns up before sunrise and attempts to catch the adult that stays on the nest for the night and removes the eggs and chicks.
Trapping: Rat snap-traps have been used for mynas. This method has apparently been unsuccessful on Kiribati (Teariki 2003).
The Species Protection Service of the Environmental Department of the Balearic Islands’ Government requested a control campaign with technical assistance from Live Arico in 2006 with the aim of controlling the common myna, which had escaped from captivity within Mallorca. The agreed objectives for this campaign were:
Training: Local personnel were presented with an informational power point presentation and were trained in:
- Control and minimize the reproductive myna populations;
- Train local personnel; and
- Increase public consciousness about the common myna and its invasiveness.
Integrated Pest Management: An information leaflet (in Spanish, English and Mallorcan) was distributed to the local population and it was hoped that media would get involved. 70 information leaflets were distributed to the population of Mallorca on the myna and the problems it causes. At the end of the campaign a press conference took place to provide information to the public and encourage the prevention of new pet birds being let free in the environment.
- Recognizing the species and handling decoys;
- Selecting the best places for trapping, placing traps and appropriate baits;
- Design, editing and distribution of informative leaflets and press information.
Trapping: A decoy bird was caught first. Trapping and shooting of birds was employed. Worms were used as bait. One Greater Blue-eared Starling Lamprotornis chyalybaeus) was caught as well.
Most of the specimens which formed the population of common myna in Mallorca were eliminated through live catches. The total number of birds caught were 12. It was believed at the end of the campaign (December 2006) that there were two birds in the wild in the Andraxt area and an unknown number in captivity. The cost of the project was approximately €2930 (Live Arico Tenerife Animal and Environmental Protection, 2007).
The Taporoporo’anga Ipukarea Society (TIS), with the support of the PII (Pacific Invasives Initiative) has proposed to eradicate the common myna on the island. There is concern that population of endemic IUCN Red List Vulnerable Mangaia kingfisher (Todiramphus ruficollaris) is decreasing due to myna birds.
A feasibility study (13-20 June 2006) identified the fact that eradication had never been attempted on a large island, so there would be a high risk of failure. In order for the inititive to be successful the community must support the initiative, all birds must be put at risk at once, there must be a persistent follow-up program to account for all birds not affected by the initial event, detection probabilities need to be established, clear ‘Stop’ rules need to be defined, methods must include avicide (DRC1339) initially and firearms and traps as a follow-up and financial issues need to be addressed. Problems identified include the availability of little scientific and adequate information, the lack of local knowledge of mynas and their effects, the insufficient scientific knowledge about effects of mynas as invasive species, in both biodiversity and social areas, the lack of baseline data for monitoring, the lack of experience of large-scale management strategies, the fact that island ecosystems are vulnerable to invasions. Lastly while native and endemic bird species and livelihoods may be at risk if nothing is done is the ‘precautionary principle’ justification?
Tindall Ralph and Clout (2007) removed 457 mynas from the 146-ha Moturoa Island in the Bay of Islands in June 1995. The authors noted a coincident significant increase in the abundance indices (10-minute bird counts) of tui, grey warbler and blackbirds, but not in the kingfisher population (Parkes 2009).
The Tindall trap is round, c.1.0 to 1.2 m in diameter, and 0.8 to 0.9 m high. Mynas gain access at ground level through 3 to 4 netting funnels that reduce from 120 mm in height on the outside to 80 to 100 mm on the inside. The interior of the trap is baited with bread, and a call-bird is occasionally used in a smaller cage within the large cage. A hatch on the top of the cage allows access for removal of birds and replacement of baits. The Tindall Trap was effective in reducing and maintaining mynas at very low levels, although reinvasion occurred (Tindall 1996).
Rat snap-traps have been used successfully to reduce common myna numbers at one locality in northern New Zealand (R. Pierce Pers. Obs.,). This involved baiting of standard rat traps with bread, including bread scattered around a roof top site. Mynas were arriving erratically (usually 1-2 per week) at the site, with typically one of these birds being trapped and the others leaving the area, presumably because of the obvious threat posed by the traps. Some other exotic birds were also killed.
Northland Region (North Island)
The myna is regionally classified as “Cost recovery and education only” pest. The Northland Regional Council has produced a myna fact sheet on control methods such as poisoning, shooting and bird-scaring devices.
The common myna has increased in range significantly and efforts should be made to control this species (McAllan & Hobcroft 2005).
There are active management programmes aimed at eradicating mynas in the Seychelles.
Chemical: An eradication programme based on Starlacide followed by shooting was initiated on Denis Island. Starlicide could not be used as the first step in eradicating mynas from other islands in the Seychelles because of the presence of endemic species likely to consume artificial baits (Millet et al. 2004).
Trapping: Eradication and control projects have also been initiated on Aride, Cousin and Fregate Islands (Millet et al. 2).
Nest trapping using nylon nooses was used in the Seychelles eradications to capture mynas nesting in artificial nest-boxes designed for the IUCN Red List endangered Seychelles magpie robin (Copsychus sechellarum) (Millet et al. 2004). This method was highly effective in eliminating some of the few surviving individuals that had become wary of other control methods.
Netting: In Singapore, large numbers of mynas (both common mynas and white-vented mynas) and other birds were netted successfully at night in an operation using a large floodlit trap (S. Saavedra Pers. Comm.,). This trap comprised a large funnel of netting (27m long, 20m wide, and 40m high) supported by two cranes each 40m in height. The mouth of the funnel was placed as close as possible to the edge of the roost with the throat of the funnel connected to a large tent (4m wide, 3m high, and 10m long). Floodlights (5 x 1000 watts) were directed towards the roost. Setting up of the trap occurred during the day and the roost trees (two Agama trees) were pruned 10 days prior to the first of two operations using the net, which took place 14 days apart. The roost was surrounded by many people at night and the birds were herded towards the light and into the net, with all other street lighting in the area having been extinguished. Captured birds were kept in a series of cages and were subsequently gassed with carbon dioxide, a tank of gas being connected to airtight boxes containing birds. The cost of materials for this operation was about US $13 000.
Trapping: The Decoy Trap is another version of a foraging trap and is an adaptation of the Potter tra(S. Saavedra Pers. Comm). It works on a trapdoor principle, with birds becoming trapped in one of 8-12 compartments. Food (papaya, bread, rice, meat) and a decoy bird was used to lure birds into the trap doors. It was used to trap mynas in Singapore and cost US$250, but relatively few birds were captured (S. Saavedra Pers. Comm.,).
Given the remarkable population increase of mynas in southern Africa (Peacock van Renburg & Robertson 2007), and their known negative effects on the environment in some parts of the world careful documentation and monitoring of any new occurrences of common mynas in semi-natural areas are needed and should be ongoing in order to assist with the potential future management of this species (van Rensburg Peacock & Robertson 2009).
An eradication action plan is about to be implemented, mainly targeting roosting sites.
The common myna is prohibited in Western Australia and individuals found there are removed. If members of the public spot a bird which might be a myna, they should contact the Department of Agriculture, South Perth, Ph (08) 9368 3333 or any country office (Massam 2001) or the National Animal Pest Alert Freecall 1800 084 881.
1. ACT 2003. State of the Environment Report 2003. Indicator–Pest Animals. Australian Capital Territory.
6. Hails, C. J. 1985. Studies of problem bird species in Singapore: I. Sturnidae (Mynas and Starlings). A report submitted to the commissioner for Parks and Recreation, Ministry of National Development, Singapore.
摘要： Notes on invasive characteristics.
7. Hatzofe, O. and Perelman, Y. 2001. Myna trapping trial report: summary and recommendations. Israel Nature and Parks Authority internal report of the Science and Conservation Division. 4pp.
摘要： In Hebrew.
8. Hughes, B.J., G.R. Martin & S.J. Reynolds. 2008. Cats and seabirds: effects of feral Domestic Cat Felis silvestris catus eradication on the population of Sooty Terns Onychoprion fuscata on Ascension, Ibis 150(Suppl. 1): 122-131.
9. IUCN 2010. IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Version 2010.4.
摘要： The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species provides taxonomic, conservation status and distribution information on taxa that have been globally evaluated using the IUCN Red List Categories and Criteria. This system is designed to determine the relative risk of extinction, and the main purpose of the IUCN Red List is to catalogue and highlight those taxa that are facing a higher risk of global extinction (i.e. those listed as Critically Endangered, Endangered and Vulnerable). The IUCN Red List also includes information on taxa that are categorized as Extinct or Extinct in the Wild; on taxa that cannot be evaluated because of insufficient information (i.e. are Data Deficient); and on taxa that are either close to meeting the threatened thresholds or that would be threatened were it not for an ongoing taxon-specific conservation programme (i.e. are Near Threatened).
Available from: http://www.iucnredlist.org/ [Accessed 25 May 2011]
10. IUCN/SSC Invasive Species Specialist Group (ISSG)., 2010. A Compilation of Information Sources for Conservation Managers.
摘要： This compilation of information sources can be sorted on keywords for example: Baits & Lures, Non Target Species, Eradication, Monitoring, Risk Assessment, Weeds, Herbicides etc. This compilation is at present in Excel format, this will be web-enabled as a searchable database shortly. This version of the database has been developed by the IUCN SSC ISSG as part of an Overseas Territories Environmental Programme funded project XOT603 in partnership with the Cayman Islands Government - Department of Environment. The compilation is a work under progress, the ISSG will manage, maintain and enhance the database with current and newly published information, reports, journal articles etc.
11. Kang, N., Sigurdsson, J. B., Hails, C. J., & Counsilman J. J. 1990. Some implications of resource removal in the control of mynas (Acridotheres spp.) in Singapore. Malayan Nature Journal 44: 103-108.
摘要： Long term management issues.
12. Lim, H.C., Sodhi, N.S., Brook, B.W. and Soh, M.C.K. 2003. Undesirable Aliens: Factors Determining the Distribution of Three Invasive Bird Species in Singapore, Journal of Tropical Ecology 19: 685–695.
摘要： Land use in Singapore and the presence of invasive birds.
13. Live Arico Tenerife Animal and Environmental Protection, 2007. First campaign for Common Myna (Acridotheres tristis) control in the island of Mallorca. Final Report for the Environment Departament Balearic Islands’ Government
14. Live Arico. 2007. First Campaign for Common Myna (Acridotheres tristis) Control in the island of Mallorca 2006.
16. Millett, J, Climo, G & Jivan Shah, N. 2004. Eradication of the common myna Acridotheres tristis populations in the granitic Seychelles: successes, failures and lessons learned. Advances in Vertebrate Pest Management 3: 169-183.
17. Nelson, P.C. 1994. Bird Control in New Zealand Using Alpha-Chloralose and DRC1339, Vertebrate Pest Conference Proceedings collection:
Proceedings of the Sixteenth Vertebrate Pest
20. Pacific Invasives Initiative (PII). Undated. A major myna matter: managing invasive birds in the Pacific.
21. Parkes, J. 2009. Common Mynas (Acridotheres tristis) on the Three Kings Islands: Should and Can They Be Controlled or Eradicated?
22. Pell, A.S. and Tidemann, C.R. 1997. The ecology of the common myna (Acridotheres tristis) in urban nature reserves in the Australian Capital Territory (Abstract), EMU 97: 141-149.
摘要： Mynas and their association with reserves.
23. Pierce, R.J. 2005. A Preliminary Review of Interactions Between Introduced Mynas and Indigenous Vertebrate Fauna and Methods for Controlling Mynas.
25. Savage, J. (Bird Gard). 2004. Subject: Re: [Aliens-L] Dealing with Common Mynas (Acridotheres tristis). Email communication.
26. Tidemann, C. 2007a. Common Indian Myna Website > Home. The Australian National University.
摘要： Useful information, including how to trap and humanely dispose of mynas. Limited stocks of myna traps are available for sale - if you wish to purchase a trap please express interest via the web site. If you represent a group and would like your web site to be linked to the anu myna site - please email email@example.com with "Myna Group" in the subject line and the url of your web site in the text of the message. Please keep your message brief.
Available from: http://fennerschool-associated.anu.edu.au//myna/index.html [Accessed 27 October 2009]
31. Tindall, S.D., C.J. Ralph & M.N. Clout. 2007. Changes in bird abundance following common myna control on a New Zealand island, Pacific Conservation Biology 13(3): 202-212.