Preventative measures: Intentional transport of frogs has been banned in Hawai‘i (Kraus and Campbell, 2002).
Physical: Hand-capture is a successful method when dealing with small numbers (Kraus and Campbell, 2002).
Non-chemical: A study by Hara et al (2010) shows that a hot-water shower treatment of ornamental plants in commercial nurseries is an effective disinfestation treatment for coqui eggs, subadults and adults; thus reducing one major potential pathway for the spread of this species. It is recommended that ornamental plants be treated to a 45 degrees C of water for up to 5 min, as this regime is sufficient to achieve mortality of all stages of the frog while being within the tolerance range of many of the host plants. This method would be most effective in enclosed areas before transportation of ornamental plants. (Hara et al. 2010)
Chemical: Field trials are being conducted to evaluate the efficacy of a direct spray application of a concentrated caffeine and water solution for control on 0.1 - 0.5ha infested plots. If these trials are successful, it is hoped that management agencies in the State of Hawai‘I will be able to reduce the spread and potential impact of these pest species on a landscape scale (Campbell et al. 2002). Spraying of citric acid on infested plants to kill E. coqui eggs, juveniles and adults is recommended (CTAHR, Undated) but evidence of efficacy has not been demonstrated.
Location Specific Management Information
A single individual Eleutherodactylus coqui was discovered and destroyed in 2004. Since the E. coqui "Listen Up Guam" hotline began in 30 March 2005, more than 500 calls have been received. It is thought that the absence of E. coqui in Guam is largely due to Guam’s Import Protocol for live plants from Hawaii. One salamander (Ambystoma gracile) and one frog (Pseudacris regilla) have been intercepted in shipments of Christmas trees, and one brown anole (Norops sagrei) was found in a shipment of live plants at the plant inspection station in May 2006. To date, 13 introduced frog species have been discovered on Guam:
- Bufo marinus*(1937) (Anon. 1940; Chernin 1979)
- Eleutherodactylus coqui** (2004)
- Eleutherodactylus planirostris* (2003)
- Fejervarya cancrivora* (2003)
- Fejervarya limnocharis* (2003)
- Kaloula pulchra** (2000? – ask USDA)
- Kaloula picta** (1992) (McCoid 1993)
- Litoria fallax* (1968) (Eldredge 1988)
- Microhyla pulchra*** (2004)
- Polypedates leucomystax** (2000) (Wiles 2000)
- Polypedates megacephalus* (2004)
- Pseudacris regilla** (1993 and 2005)
- Rana guentheri* (2003)
* Established (7)
** Discovered and destroyed (5)
*** Status unknown (1)
Until recently, the only legal method in Hawaii for the control of frogs was hand capture, which is ineffective for large populations. For small populations it can be successful, especially if used with a taped recording of the frogs call to attract males. More recently, permission has been given to hand-spray caffeine for E. coqui control (Kraus and Campbell, 2002).
3. Campbell, E.W., and F. Kraus. 2002. Neotropical frogs in Hawaii: status and management options for an unusual introduced pest. Pp. 316-318 in Timm, R.M., and R.H. Schmidt (eds.), Proceedings of the 20th Vertebrate Pest Conference. Univ. of California Press, Davis, California.
5. Centre for Environment, Fisheries & Aquaculture Science (CEFAS)., 2008. Decision support tools-Identifying potentially invasive non-native marine and freshwater species: fish, invertebrates, amphibians.
Summary: The electronic tool kits made available on the Cefas page for free download are Crown Copyright (2007-2008). As such, these are freeware and may be freely distributed provided this notice is retained. No warranty, expressed or implied, is made and users should satisfy themselves as to the applicability of the results in any given circumstance. Toolkits available include 1) FISK- Freshwater Fish Invasiveness Scoring Kit (English and Spanish language version); 2) MFISK- Marine Fish Invasiveness Scoring Kit; 3) MI-ISK- Marine invertebrate Invasiveness Scoring Kit; 4) FI-ISK- Freshwater Invertebrate Invasiveness Scoring Kit and AmphISK- Amphibian Invasiveness Scoring Kit. These tool kits were developed by Cefas, with new VisualBasic and computational programming by Lorenzo Vilizzi, David Cooper, Andy South and Gordon H. Copp, based on VisualBasic code in the original Weed Risk Assessment (WRA) tool kit of P.C. Pheloung, P.A. Williams & S.R. Halloy (1999).
The decision support tools are available from: http://cefas.defra.gov.uk/our-science/ecosystems-and-biodiversity/non-native-species/decision-support-tools.aspx [Accessed 13 October 2011]
The guidance document is available from http://www.cefas.co.uk/media/118009/fisk_guide_v2.pdf [Accessed 13 January 2009].
7. Gee II, David E., pers. comm. 2006. Wildlife Biologist, Guam Division of Aquatic & Wildlife Resources and Guam team member of the Pacific Invasives Learning Network (PILN).
9. Hara, Arnold H., Jacobsen, Christopher M., Marr, Shenandoah R. and Niino-DuPonte, Ruth Y., 2010. 'Hot water as a potential disinfestation treatment for an invasive anuran amphibian, the coqui frog, Eleutherodactylus
coqui Thomas (Leptodactylidae), on potted plants', International Journal of Pest Management, 56: 3, 255 — 263
12. Kraus, F., and E. Campbell. 2002. Human-mediated escalation of a formerly eradicable problem: The invasion of Caribbean frogs in the Hawaiian Islands. Biological Invasions 4(3): 327-332
Summary: Information on description, economic importance, distribution, habitat, history, growth, and impacts and management of species.
13. Kraus, F., E. W. Campbell, A. Allison, AND T. Pratt. 1999. Eleutherodactylus frog introductions to Hawaii. Herpetological Review 30:21–25.
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