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   Alexandrium minutum (藻类)  English   
生态 分布 管理 影响 参考数据 联系


         管理信息

    预防措施:监测沿海水域有害藻类的存在与否,通常必须用显微镜检视浮游植物族群。这些程序不但费时,而且需要丰富的生物分类经验。一项由加卢齐和他的同事(2004)进行的研究描述了利用分子工具来帮助检测海洋样本中存在的微生物。在这项研究中,他们开发了一种实时 PCR快速检测和定量检测,可检测所有有毒的亚历山大属藻类,用固定剂保存和培养的样本皆可使用。将量化结果与标准的显微镜计数方法加以比较。比较的结果,确认在进行沿海水质监测时,实时 PCR技术可以有效、快速的检测和定量目标浮游植物种类。

    澳大利亚环境和遗产部委托联邦科学与工业研究组织(CSIRO)进行了为期两年的研究,试图将已经被引进和尚未被引进澳大利亚水域的海洋物种,进行鉴定和分级。
    本报告鉴定出的全部非本土物种,根据他们的侵袭和影响的潜力,区分为高,中,低三个优先等级。微小亚历山大藻(Alexandrium minutum)被认定为10种最有可能经由船舶扩散到未感染地区的生物之一。基于综合影响能力(经济和环境),微小亚历山大藻(Alexandrium minutum)也被视为国内 10个最具破坏性的物种之一。一个针对从感染入侵到未受感染的危险分级排名,认为微小亚历山大藻(Alexandrium minutum)是一个「高优先物种」,这些物种有相当高的入侵潜力,其影响可能是国内目标物种中最高的。
    详情请参阅海斯等人, 2005
    海斯等人, 2005的分级,将被澳大利亚海洋入侵种协调小组使用,以协助发展国家控制计划,可能包括控制,消灭或长期管理的分法。

    法国在1997年发生藻华之后,亚历山大属藻类的细胞观察到被Parvilucifera孢子囊寄生感染(Apicomplexan) (Erard-Le Denn et al., 2002)。另据报告说:这种寄生者在塔拉戈纳港大发生时,也感染西班牙的A. catenella(德尔加多, 1999),也在斯堪的纳维亚水域感染Dinophysis(诺伦等人, 1999)。此寄生者也会感染实验室培养的其它几个甲藻物种,估计寄生引起的死亡能够在很短的时间消除可观的甲藻生物量,将它作为有毒甲藻华的生物控制剂的可能性很高(德尔加多, 1999; Erard乐登等人, 2002)。然而,对于微小亚历山大藻的自然族群,这种寄生的效果并没有使大发生减少,至少在两个大发生期间(Probet, 1999;维拉等人, 2005)。 English   



         地点特有的管理信息
    Catalunya
    The Catalan coast in Spain (NW-Mediterranean) is monitored for the presence of potentially harmful phytoplankton species by the Consejo Superior de Investigaciones Cientificas (ICM-CSIC) as a contract of the Agència Catalana de l’Aigua (ACA) in agreement with the directions of the European Water Framework Directive (WFD). Marine toxins and harmful phytoplankton in shellfish harvesting areas is monitored by the Institut de Recerca i Tecnologia Agroalimentaries (IRTA) as a mandate for the fisheries department of the Regional Government of Catalonia (Direcció General de Pesca i Afers Maritims, DGPiAM). Both CSIC and IRTA communicate constantly and share a complementary monitoring strategy for HABs (Harmful Algal Blooms) in the 580 km coastline. See Furones et al., (in press) for more details.


         管理资源 /链接

    1. Delgado, M., 1999. A new "diablillo parasite" in the toxic dinoflagellate Alexandrium catenella as a possibility to control harmful algal blooms. Harmful Algae News 19, 1-3.
    2. Erard-Le Denn, E., Chrétiennot-Dinet, M.J. and Probert, I. 2000. First Report of Parasitism on the Toxic Dinoflagellate Alexandrium minutum Halim, Estuarine, Coastal and Shelf Science 50(1): 109-113.g
    3. Furones D, Vila M, Garcés E, Sampedro N, Arin L, Masó M, Camp J, Delgado M, Fernández M and Diogène J. (In press). The monitoring programme for marine toxins and harmful phytoplankton in the Catalan coastline, North Western Mediterranean, Spain. International Conference on Molluscan Shellfish Safety (ICMSS04). 2004, Galway, Ireland.
    4. Galluzzi, L., Penna, A., Bertozzini, E., Vila, M., Garcés, E. and Magnani, M. 2004. Development of a Real-Time PCR Assay for Rapid Detection and Quantification of Alexandrium minutum (a Dinoflagellate), Applied and Environmental Microbiology 70(2): 1199-1206.
    5. HAE-DAT, undated. IOC-ICES-PICES Harmful Algae Event Data Base: HAE-DAT
            摘要: HAE-DAT is a meta data base containing records of harmful algal events. HAE-DAT contains records from the ICES area (North Atlantic) since 1985, and from the PICES area (North Pacific) since 2000 (in prep.). IOC Regional networks in South America and North Africa are preparing to start contributing.
    Available from: http://ioc.unesco.org/hab/HAEDAT.htm#1 [Accessed 28 March 2997]
    6. Hallegraeff G.M and Bolch CJ, 1992. Transport of diatoms and dinoflagellates resting spores in ships’ ballast water: implications for plankton biogeography and aquaculture. Journal Plankton Research 14: 1067-1084.
    7. Hallegraeff, G.M., 1993. A review of harmful algal blooms and their apparent global increase. Phycologia 32, 79-99.
    8. Hayes, K. R., R. Cannon, K. Neil, and G. Inglis. 2005. Sensitivity and cost considerations for the detection and eradication of marine pests in ports. Marine Pollution Bulletin Article in Press, Corrected Proof - Note to users.
    10. Laabir M and Gentien P, 1999. Survival of toxic dinoflagellates after gut passage in the Pacific oyster Crassostrea gigas Thunburg. Journal Shellfish Research 18: 217-222.
    14. Norén, F., Moestrup, O., Rehnstam-Holm, A., 1999. Parvilucifera infectans Norén et Moestrup gen. et sp. nov. (Perkinsozoa phylum nov.): a parasitic flagellate capable of killing toxic microalgae. European Journal of Protistology 35(3), 233-254.
    15. Smayda TJ and CS Reynolds 2001. Community Assembly in Marine Phytoplankton: Application of Recent Models to Harmful Dinoflagellate Blooms. Journal of Plankton Research Vol.23 no.5 pp.447-461
    16. Van Dolah, F.M. 2000. Marine algal toxins: origins, health effects, and their increased occurrence. Environ. Health Prespect. 108:133-141.
    17. Vila, M., Camp, J., Garcés, E., Masó, M., Delgado, M., 2001. High resolution spatio-temporal detection of potentially harmful dinoflagellates in confined waters of the NW Mediterranean. J. Plankton Res. 23(5), 497–514.

         结果页: 1  


ISSG Landcare Research NBII IUCN University of Auckland