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   Carpobrotus edulis (肉质植物)  English   
生态 分布 管理 影响 参考数据 联系


         管理信息

    预防措施莫邪菊(Carpobrotus edulis)的风险评估,由Kaulunani 都市森林计划与美国森林服务部赞助,Dr. Curtis Daehler (UH Botany)执行,针对夏威夷与其它太平洋岛屿。外来植物检查系统源于Pheloung 等(1999) 小幅修正后,使用在太平洋岛屿。其结果是9.5分,建议如下:可能对夏威夷和其它太平洋群岛造成重大生态和经济损害,WRA 分数很高,这是依据已出版的描述物种生物学和行为学的数据在夏威夷或世界其它地区。

    物理方法:人工的方法似乎是控制莫邪菊最有效的方法。艾伯特(1996, PIER, 2005)建议使用人工拔除个别植株,并移除任何埋在地下的茎。使用覆盖法以防止它重新建立族群。可以把大型植垫像地毯一样卷起来。重要的是移除莫邪菊时要把它全部搬离,留在原处会成为再生的焦点,因为大量的种子会在果实上存活很长一段时间(弗拉加等人, 2006 )。

    移除莫邪菊以后,另一件要注意的事是,次生入侵者可能会利用此开放区,迅速蔓延,阻碍沿海沙丘环境恢复的工作。莫邪菊会留下死亡和腐烂的有机枯枝落叶层,积累在植物下。这往往在移除莫邪菊后被置之不理。这些枯枝落叶层中往往有入侵草种的休眠种子,莫邪菊被移除后,这些种子会发芽,并受益于莫邪菊积累的营养物质。为了避免这一点,最好是选择性地移除莫邪菊,以确保留下的一些稳定的土壤和减少沙子进入该地区。一旦该地区恢复成一个较自然的族群,可以移除其余的莫邪菊,恢复该地区(金)。

    化学方法:PIER(2005)建议使用草甘膦除草剂。Schmalzer和欣克尔(1987)报告说:没有全面的调查用在莫邪菊的除草剂。据推测,广效性除草剂会杀死莫邪菊,但他们也可能会影响邻近的植被。一种整形醇形态素,已被用于减少公路两旁的莫邪菊(希尔德和赫姆斯特里特, 1974,在Schmalzer和欣克尔, 1987)。

    生物方法:目前的生物控制方法有限,因为会攻击莫邪菊的病原体并不具专一性。黄萎病Verticillium可对它造成相当大的伤害(麦凯恩等人, 1974),但使用它可能导致问题,因为它会攻击经济作物(Schmalzer和欣克尔, 1987)。Suehs等人(2004b)报告说:如果可能的话,限制种子发芽生长或许是长期控制莫邪菊最有效的方法,由于其在这些田野较高的成功率。1970年代,加利福尼亚州引入两种蚧虫造成莫邪菊大量死亡(唐纳森等人, 1978)。因此加州公路部门引入天敌来控制(Tassan等人, 1982)。尽管如此,已观察到蚧虫也造成加州更多天然植物死亡。 English   



         地点特有的管理信息
    California
    The California Exotic Pest Plant Council (CalEPPC) have placed C. edulis on their A-1 list (Grossinger et al. 1998).

    Di Tomaso (2005) suggests planting alternative species to C. edulis in California - such as Delosperma cooper (hardy iceplant), Osteospermum fruticosum and hybrids (freeway daisy), Teucrium chamaedrys or T. lucidrys (wall germander) or Drosanthemum floribundum (showy dewflower).

    Gibraltar
    Carpobrotus carpobrotus x edulis is being removed by the MOD in the Windmill Hill flats area. The Upper Rock Management Plan recommends legislation prohibiting growing or keeping of this species in gardens and homes within the reserve (Perez and Bensusan, undated in Varnham, 2006).
    Minorca Is.
    Early attempts at controlling Carpobrotus edulis in Minorca began in the late 1990s, with the aim of eradicating the plant from Favaritx (in the north-east of the island). This was not achieved due to landowner opposition. Eradication measures were simultaneously carried out in the east of the island by the local NGO Grup d'Ornitologia Balear i Defensa de la Naturalesa.

    Subsequent to these early attempts, further preparatory measures were carried out to enhance the success of further efforts. A detailed cartography regarding the distribution of the plant was undertaken, and experimental methods investigated to determine the best means of eradication and restoration. These revealed that the plant covered 25.8ha of the island, and that the most efficient eradication method was manual removal. Eradication was finally undertaken between 2002 and 2005. An awareness campaign was also launched, to ensure its ongoing success. Alternative plants for gardening were suggested. Today the plant is restricted to two zones in the north east of the island, due to opposition of landowners to its removal (Fraga et al. 2006).

    Ramla I-Hamra
    Carpobrotus edulis was eradicated from Ramla I-Hamra, Malta in 2001. The invasion was in the early stages when the eradication was carried out by the former Environment Protection Department, using manual methods (IUCN, 2005).
    Ramla tat-Torri
    Carpobrotus edulis was eradicated from Ramla tat-Torri, Malta in c.1997/99. The invasion was partly extensive but not considered serious at the time of eradication. The eradication was carried out by the former Environment Protection Department, and involved manual methods. It caused some initial disturbance, but also contributed to the expansion of the Centaureo-Ononidetum fixed dune community (IUCN, 2005).


         管理资源 /链接

    1. Donaldson, D.R., Moore, W.S., Koehler, C.S. and Joos, J.L. 1978. Scales threaten iceplant in Bay Area. California agriculture. October. P. 4-7.
    8. Suehs, C.M., Affre, L. and Medail, F. 2004b. Invasion dynamics of two alien Carpobrotus (Aizoaceae) taxa on a Mediterranean island: II. Reproductive strategies. Heredity. 92: 550-556.
            摘要: This paper discusses the reproductive strategies of two species of Carpobrotus in the Mediterranean region.
    9. Tassan, R.L., Hagen, K.S. and Cassidy, D.V. 1982. Imported natural enemies established against iceplant scales in California. California Agriculture 36: 16-17.
            摘要: This paper provides a brief history of the introduction of two hymenopteran wasps to control iceplant scale in California and describes early ‘successes’ in the establishment of these wasps.

         结果页: 1  


ISSG Landcare Research NBII IUCN University of Auckland