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   Myocastor coypus (哺乳動物) English   
生態 分佈 管理 影響 參考資料 聯繫


         一般影響

    美洲巨水鼠(Myocastor coypus)(河狸鼠)會挖掘洞穴損害河岸與堤防,(Carter and Leonard, 2002)取食沼澤植物的根莖和嫩枝,導致植物群落崩潰,並可能侵蝕沿岸棲息地。(LeBlanc, 1994)密西西比障礙島的河狸鼠吃海洋燕麥的根莖,已經導致這些重要的棲地受到沙丘侵蝕。(GSMFC 2005)

    海狸鼠族群密度高時,能夠從沼澤轉移到開放水域,吃那裡的植物。河狸鼠造成的棲息地破壞,使稀有的沼澤地鳥類、魚類與無脊椎動物面臨威脅。在義大利河狸鼠曾引起繁殖 whiskered tern( Chlidonias hybrida)藉由主要地在 Valli di Argenta 中破壞睡蓮 Nymphaea的掩護衰退一個被指定的 IBA(重要的鳥區域) 。日本兩個國寶物種的棲息地 - 一個極度瀕危蜻蜓(請參閱Libellula angelina在 IUCN 紅皮書 )與魚易受傷害的身體縱深的 bitterling(請參閱Acheilognathus longipinnis在 IUCN 紅皮書 )(Shirow Tatsuzawa, pers. comm.)是受到威脅的由於河狸鼠。

    河狸鼠也吃包括甘蔗、紫花苜蓿與根農作物的農業的農作物(Carter and Leonard 2002)(Woods et al.1992)




         地點特有的影響:
    Italy English 
    農業: Coypu are presently regarded as a pest species in Italy due to the damage they cause to rice farms. In a 2003 written communication, Piero Genovesi calculated that between 1996 and 2000, coypu caused 14 million euros in damage, and further losses from each year are projected to rise 9-12 million euros
    Japan English 
    捕食: Coypu eat native freshwater mussels. Some native fish species which lay their eggs in these mussels have become locally extinct. Two fish species predicted to be threatened in this manner are the Nippon-Bara-tanago or Japanese rose bitterling (Rhodeus ocellaus kurumeus) and the vulnerable Itasenpara or deepbody bitterling (see Acheilognathus longipinnis in IUCN Red List of Threatened Species), are listed in the Japanese Red Data Book of endangered species. A. longipinnis is endemic to small parts of Honshu and is a Japanese national natural treasure (Tatsuzawa, S., pers. Comm., 2004).

    農業: Coypu cause minor damage to river and pond systems (Tatsuzawa, S., pers. comm., 2004).

    降低本地生物多樣性: Coypu eat water plants that sustain native insect fauna. This has caused the local extinction of many insects that depend on the natural flora, including some species of dragon fly. One dragon fly species threatened with extinction is the critically endangered or Bekkou-tombo (see Libellula angelina in IUCN Red List of Threatened Species). Bekkou-tombo is related to species of painted grasshawk. It is endemic to Japan and is a Japanese national natural treasure (Tatsuzawa, S., pers. Comm., 2004).
    Netherlands English 
    農業: Coypu damages the sugar beet crop in the Netherlands and is therefore being considered a candidate for eradication by European agencies. (Litjens, 1980; in Carter, 2007)
    United Kingdom (UK) English 
    威脅瀕危物種: Coypu added to the decline of cowbane Circuta virosa, whicih is now a Nationally Scarce species in Britain. (Gosling and Baker, 1989)

    滋擾人類: Coypu disrupted drainage systems in East Anglia due to their extensive borrow systems in river banks, and thus caused a flood risk. It also damaged agricultural crops (Gosling and Baker, 1989)

    降低本地生物多樣性: Myocaster coypus destroyed large areas of reedswamp (Gosling and Baker, 1989)



ISSG Landcare Research NBII IUCN University of Auckland