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   Myocastor coypus (哺乳动物) English   
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         一般影响

    美洲巨水鼠(Myocastor coypus)(河狸鼠) 会挖掘洞穴损害河岸与堤防,(Carter and Leonard, 2002) 取食沼泽植物的根茎和嫩枝,导致植物群落崩溃,并可能侵蚀沿岸栖息地。(LeBlanc, 1994) 密西西比障碍岛的河狸鼠吃海洋燕麦的根茎,已经导致这些重要的栖地受到沙丘侵蚀。(GSMFC 2005)

    海狸鼠族群密度高时,能够从沼泽转移到开放水域,吃那里的植物。河狸鼠造成的栖息地破坏,使稀有的沼泽地鸟类、鱼类与无脊椎动物面临威胁。在意大利河狸鼠曾引起繁殖 whiskered tern( Chlidonias hybrida) 藉由主要地在 Valli di Argenta 中破坏睡莲 Nymphaea的掩护衰退一个被指定的 IBA(重要的鸟区域) 。日本两个国宝物种的栖息地 - 一个极度濒危蜻蜓 (请参阅Libellula angelina在 IUCN 红皮书 ) 与鱼易受伤害的身体纵深的 bitterling(请参阅Acheilognathus longipinnis在 IUCN 红皮书 )(Shirow Tatsuzawa, pers. comm.) 是受到威胁的由于河狸鼠。

    河狸鼠也吃包括甘蔗、紫花苜蓿与根农作物的农业的农作物 (Carter and Leonard 2002)(Woods et al.1992)




         地点特有的影响:
    Italy English 
    农业: Coypu are presently regarded as a pest species in Italy due to the damage they cause to rice farms. In a 2003 written communication, Piero Genovesi calculated that between 1996 and 2000, coypu caused 14 million euros in damage, and further losses from each year are projected to rise 9-12 million euros
    Japan English 
    农业: Coypu cause minor damage to river and pond systems (Tatsuzawa, S., pers. comm., 2004).

    捕食: Coypu eat native freshwater mussels. Some native fish species which lay their eggs in these mussels have become locally extinct. Two fish species predicted to be threatened in this manner are the Nippon-Bara-tanago or Japanese rose bitterling (Rhodeus ocellaus kurumeus) and the vulnerable Itasenpara or deepbody bitterling (see Acheilognathus longipinnis in IUCN Red List of Threatened Species), are listed in the Japanese Red Data Book of endangered species. A. longipinnis is endemic to small parts of Honshu and is a Japanese national natural treasure (Tatsuzawa, S., pers. Comm., 2004).

    降低本地生物多样性: Coypu eat water plants that sustain native insect fauna. This has caused the local extinction of many insects that depend on the natural flora, including some species of dragon fly. One dragon fly species threatened with extinction is the critically endangered or Bekkou-tombo (see Libellula angelina in IUCN Red List of Threatened Species). Bekkou-tombo is related to species of painted grasshawk. It is endemic to Japan and is a Japanese national natural treasure (Tatsuzawa, S., pers. Comm., 2004).
    Netherlands English 
    农业: Coypu damages the sugar beet crop in the Netherlands and is therefore being considered a candidate for eradication by European agencies. (Litjens, 1980; in Carter, 2007)
    United Kingdom (UK) English 
    威胁濒危物种: Coypu added to the decline of cowbane Circuta virosa, whicih is now a Nationally Scarce species in Britain. (Gosling and Baker, 1989)

    滋扰人类: Coypu disrupted drainage systems in East Anglia due to their extensive borrow systems in river banks, and thus caused a flood risk. It also damaged agricultural crops (Gosling and Baker, 1989)

    降低本地生物多样性: Myocaster coypus destroyed large areas of reedswamp (Gosling and Baker, 1989)



ISSG Landcare Research NBII IUCN University of Auckland