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   Lymantria dispar (昆蟲) English   
生態 分佈 管理 影響 參考資料 聯繫


         一般影響

    在多數情況下,舞毒蛾都維持在低密度且肉眼不易察覺之危害程度。但偶爾族群會達到高密度以致於將樹葉完全吃光。多數舞毒蛾之影響都和其取食葉片後所導致之植物生理狀況惡劣有關,特別是在舞毒蛾連續發生多年的街道、或是同時又遇到乾旱時。這些影響包括植物生長減低、由樹冠往下枯萎及植物完全枯死。植物的死亡通常都與樹木狀況不佳時受到他種昆蟲(蛀食樹幹之昆蟲)及致病菌之侵害有關。在最壞的情況下,可能大區域的出現幾乎 100% 樹木死亡。最重大的影響是發生在市區或郊區環境中。在市區環境裏,如果被取食或造成死亡的樹是相當有價值之遮蔭樹或行道樹時,影響就會相當嚴重。而且當大發生時,其數量會多到妨害屋主造園。有些人對其幼蟲所被覆的毛會過敏,進而放棄他們的休閒體驗。

    典型的大發生會持續一到五年。大發生的族群之後會因飢餓與疾病增加而下降。小型哺乳類捕食者被認為是舞毒蛾族群密度低時之最重要的致死因子,牠們可將舞毒蛾之族群抑制在零星分佈的狀態達數年。舞毒蛾的食害會降低植物種子產量及根部生長,以致於林地的更新變差。自然的多樣性及本地昆蟲、鳥類及其他動物的種類組成,可能會因大發生時所造成之寄主植物所提供之遮蔽、食物及其他的利益減少而產生改變。




         地點特有的影響:
    Canada English 
    吃草: L. dispar defoliates trees, making them more susceptible to disease, insects, and drought.

    改變林火機制: Trees that die from the secondary effects of L. dispar serve as fuel for forest fires.

    改變演化模式: If the outbreak indirectly causes the forest to burn or to be harvested, the ecosystem must reset itself.

    滋擾人類: Many people are allergic to the hairs which cover and fall from L. dispar egg masses. L. dispar also attacks urban landscape trees, defoliating and covering them with their waste products.

    經濟 /民生: Oak is the preferred food of L. dispar and is valuable to the forestry industry. Invasions are detrimental to National Parks and associated service industries because they destroy the aesthetic and recreational value of these areas.

    農業: Industries for oak, Douglas fir, and some fruit trees are detrimentally affected by L. dispar outbreaks.
    Mongolia English 
    吃草: In Mongolian and Siberian forest steppe ecotones gypsy moths often completely defoliate entire forest edges of Larix sibirica. Though trees at forest edges infested by gypsy moth larvae are often so severely defoliated that they look dead, no information is available in the literature whether such damage in L. sibirica is reversible or not. Hauck et al (2008) determined that often they are not sustainably affected, as trees were fully foliated in the subsequent year. "This suggests that single gypsy moth invasions, which are frequent in Mongolia’s forest-steppe ecotone, do not necessarily result in permanent damage of L. sibirica and, with it, not necessarily lead to local shifts of the treeline, though entire forest edges are often completely defoliated."
    Siberia (Russian Federation) English 
    吃草: In Mongolian and Siberian forest steppe ecotones gypsy moths often completely defoliate entire forest edges of Larix sibirica. Though trees at forest edges infested by gypsy moth larvae are often so severely defoliated that they look dead, no information is available in the literature whether such damage in L. sibirica is reversible or not. Hauck et al (2008) determined that often they are not sustainably affected, as trees were fully foliated in the subsequent year. "This suggests that single gypsy moth invasions, which are frequent in Mongolia’s forest-steppe ecotone, do not necessarily result in permanent damage of L. sibirica and, with it, not necessarily lead to local shifts of the treeline, though entire forest edges are often completely defoliated."
    Serbia English 
    經濟 /民生: During outbreaks, this generalist pest causes economic damage due to defoliation of forests and orchards over large areas
    United States (USA) English 
    吃草: L. dispar defoliates trees, making them more susceptible to disease, insects, and drought.

    改變林火機制: Trees that die from the secondary effects of L. dispar serve as fuel for forest fires.

    改變演化模式: If the outbreak indirectly causes the forest to burn or to be harvested, the ecosystem must reset itself.

    滋擾人類: Many people are allergic to the hairs which cover and fall from L. dispar egg masses. L. dispar also attacks urban landscape trees, defoliating and covering them with their waste products.

    經濟 /民生: Oak is the preferred food of L. dispar and is valuable to the forestry industry. Invasions are detrimental to National Parks and associated service industries because they destroy the aesthetic and recreational value of these areas.

    農業: Industries for oak, Douglas fir, and some fruit trees are detrimentally affected by L. dispar outbreaks.



ISSG Landcare Research NBII IUCN University of Auckland