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   Lymantria dispar (昆虫) English   
生态 分布 管理 影响 参考数据 联系


         一般影响

    在多数情况下,舞毒蛾都维持在低密度且肉眼不易察觉之危害程度。但偶尔族群会达到高密度以致于将树叶完全吃光。多数舞毒蛾之影响都和其取食叶片后所导致之植物生理状况恶劣有关,特别是在舞毒蛾连续发生多年的街道、或是同时又遇到干旱时。这些影响包括植物生长减低、由树冠往下枯萎及植物完全枯死。植物的死亡通常都与树木状况不佳时受到他种昆虫(蛀食树干之昆虫)及致病菌之侵害有关。在最坏的情况下,可能大区域的出现几乎 100% 树木死亡。最重大的影响是发生在市区或郊区环境中。在市区环境里,如果被取食或造成死亡的树是相当有价值之遮荫树或行道树时,影响就会相当严重。而且当大发生时,其数量会多到妨害屋主造园。有些人对其幼虫所被覆的毛会过敏,进而放弃他们的休闲体验。

    典型的大发生会持续一到五年。大发生的族群之后会因饥饿与疾病增加而下降。小型哺乳类捕食者被认为是舞毒蛾族群密度低时之最重要的致死因子,牠们可将舞毒蛾之族群抑制在零星分布的状态达数年。舞毒蛾的食害会降低植物种子产量及根部生长,以致于林地的更新变差。自然的多样性及本地昆虫、鸟类及其它动物的种类组成,可能会因大发生时所造成之寄主植物所提供之遮蔽、食物及其它的利益减少而产生改变。




         地点特有的影响:
    Canada English 
    农业: Industries for oak, Douglas fir, and some fruit trees are detrimentally affected by L. dispar outbreaks.

    吃草: L. dispar defoliates trees, making them more susceptible to disease, insects, and drought.

    改变林火机制: Trees that die from the secondary effects of L. dispar serve as fuel for forest fires.

    改变演化模式: If the outbreak indirectly causes the forest to burn or to be harvested, the ecosystem must reset itself.

    滋扰人类: Many people are allergic to the hairs which cover and fall from L. dispar egg masses. L. dispar also attacks urban landscape trees, defoliating and covering them with their waste products.

    经济 /民生: Oak is the preferred food of L. dispar and is valuable to the forestry industry. Invasions are detrimental to National Parks and associated service industries because they destroy the aesthetic and recreational value of these areas.
    Mongolia English 
    吃草: In Mongolian and Siberian forest steppe ecotones gypsy moths often completely defoliate entire forest edges of Larix sibirica. Though trees at forest edges infested by gypsy moth larvae are often so severely defoliated that they look dead, no information is available in the literature whether such damage in L. sibirica is reversible or not. Hauck et al (2008) determined that often they are not sustainably affected, as trees were fully foliated in the subsequent year. "This suggests that single gypsy moth invasions, which are frequent in Mongolia’s forest-steppe ecotone, do not necessarily result in permanent damage of L. sibirica and, with it, not necessarily lead to local shifts of the treeline, though entire forest edges are often completely defoliated."
    Siberia (Russian Federation) English 
    吃草: In Mongolian and Siberian forest steppe ecotones gypsy moths often completely defoliate entire forest edges of Larix sibirica. Though trees at forest edges infested by gypsy moth larvae are often so severely defoliated that they look dead, no information is available in the literature whether such damage in L. sibirica is reversible or not. Hauck et al (2008) determined that often they are not sustainably affected, as trees were fully foliated in the subsequent year. "This suggests that single gypsy moth invasions, which are frequent in Mongolia’s forest-steppe ecotone, do not necessarily result in permanent damage of L. sibirica and, with it, not necessarily lead to local shifts of the treeline, though entire forest edges are often completely defoliated."
    Serbia English 
    经济 /民生: During outbreaks, this generalist pest causes economic damage due to defoliation of forests and orchards over large areas
    United States (USA) English 
    农业: Industries for oak, Douglas fir, and some fruit trees are detrimentally affected by L. dispar outbreaks.

    吃草: L. dispar defoliates trees, making them more susceptible to disease, insects, and drought.

    改变林火机制: Trees that die from the secondary effects of L. dispar serve as fuel for forest fires.

    改变演化模式: If the outbreak indirectly causes the forest to burn or to be harvested, the ecosystem must reset itself.

    滋扰人类: Many people are allergic to the hairs which cover and fall from L. dispar egg masses. L. dispar also attacks urban landscape trees, defoliating and covering them with their waste products.

    经济 /民生: Oak is the preferred food of L. dispar and is valuable to the forestry industry. Invasions are detrimental to National Parks and associated service industries because they destroy the aesthetic and recreational value of these areas.



ISSG Landcare Research NBII IUCN University of Auckland