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   Mnemiopsis leidyi (梳果凍) English   
生態 分佈 管理 影響 參考資料 聯繫


         一般影響

    淡海櫛水母是主要的浮游動物掠食者,並會破壞水產養殖業(Costello, 2001)。以可食浮游動物(包含階段性浮游生物meroplankton)、魚卵以及幼蟲為食,淡海櫛水母對其入侵地區的食物鏈造成重大負面影響。在黑海以及亞速海的浮游動物、浮游魚類以及以浮游動物為食的魚類都受到明顯衝擊。

    黑海的生態系漸趨劣化,出現生物多樣性、生物數量以及浮游生態-浮游動物的生物質量明顯降低等現象(Dumont and Shiganova)。在黑海與亞速海的魚類因為魚卵及幼魚被掠食而備受威脅(Shiganova 2003)。在亞速海的上述效應比黑海來的強烈且快速。在2001年所有營養階層都受到影響,包括最上層的掠食者,裏海海豹(Dumont and Shiganova)。

    從浮游動物的減少、以浮游動物為食之魚類數量下降,直到掠食型魚類與海豚的消失,一連串的效應發生在高層營養階級的物種上。類似的效應也發生於低層營養階級︰ 浮游動物減少,導致浮游植物因為被浮游動物所食的壓力降低,數量便大幅增加。這些效應大多是由上到下,但有些是由下到上的。類似但較不嚴重的效應也發生在馬摩拉海。這些效應對地中海食物鏈的影響尚不明顯。地中海的鹽度可能在最佳狀態,使得多種掠食者可防止淡海櫛水母過度擴張。




         地點特有的影響:
    Black Sea, Bulgaria (Bulgaria) English 
    生態系統變化: Mnemiopsis leidyi causes negative impacts right through the foodchain of the areas it has invaded. The M. leidyi invasion negatively affected the ecosystems of the Black Sea and the Sea of Azov. The zooplankton, ichthyoplankton and zooplanktivorous fish stocks all underwent profound changes. Cascading effect occurred at the higher trophic levels, from a decreasing zooplankton stock to collapsing planktivorous fish to vanishing predatory fish and dolphins Similar effects occurred at lower trophic levels: from a decrease in zooplankton stock to an increase in phytoplankton, released from zooplankton grazing pressure. The majority of these effects were top-down, but a few were also bottom-up. Similar effects, but less pronounced, were recorded in the Sea of Marmara (Dumont and Shiganova).
    Agean Sea (Europe) English 
    生態系統變化: Mnemiopsis leidyi causes negative impacts right through the foodchain of the areas it has invaded. The M. leidyi invasion negatively affected the ecosystems of the Black Sea and the Sea of Azov. The zooplankton, ichthyoplankton and zooplanktivorous fish stocks all underwent profound changes. Cascading effect occurred at the higher trophic levels, from a decreasing zooplankton stock to collapsing planktivorous fish to vanishing predatory fish and dolphins Similar effects occurred at lower trophic levels: from a decrease in zooplankton stock to an increase in phytoplankton, released from zooplankton grazing pressure. The majority of these effects were top-down, but a few were also bottom-up. Similar effects, but less pronounced, were recorded in the Sea of Marmara (Dumont and Shiganova).
    Black Sea, Georgia (Georgia) English 
    生態系統變化: Mnemiopsis leidyi causes negative impacts right through the foodchain of the areas it has invaded. The M. leidyi invasion negatively affected the ecosystems of the Black Sea and the Sea of Azov. The zooplankton, ichthyoplankton and zooplanktivorous fish stocks all underwent profound changes. Cascading effect occurred at the higher trophic levels, from a decreasing zooplankton stock to collapsing planktivorous fish to vanishing predatory fish and dolphins Similar effects occurred at lower trophic levels: from a decrease in zooplankton stock to an increase in phytoplankton, released from zooplankton grazing pressure. The majority of these effects were top-down, but a few were also bottom-up. Similar effects, but less pronounced, were recorded in the Sea of Marmara (Dumont and Shiganova).
    Black Sea (Mediterranean) English 
    生態系統變化: Mnemiopsis leidyi causes negative impacts right through the foodchain of the areas it has invaded. The M. leidyi invasion negatively affected the ecosystems of the Black Sea and the Sea of Azov. The zooplankton, ichthyoplankton and zooplanktivorous fish stocks all underwent profound changes. Cascading effect occurred at the higher trophic levels, from a decreasing zooplankton stock to collapsing planktivorous fish to vanishing predatory fish and dolphins Similar effects occurred at lower trophic levels: from a decrease in zooplankton stock to an increase in phytoplankton, released from zooplankton grazing pressure. The majority of these effects were top-down, but a few were also bottom-up. Similar effects, but less pronounced, were recorded in the Sea of Marmara (Dumont and Shiganova).
    Sea of Azov (Mediterranean) English 
    生態系統變化: Mnemiopsis leidyi causes negative impacts right through the foodchain of the areas it has invaded. The M. leidyi invasion negatively affected the ecosystems of the Black Sea and the Sea of Azov. The zooplankton, ichthyoplankton and zooplanktivorous fish stocks all underwent profound changes. Cascading effect occurred at the higher trophic levels, from a decreasing zooplankton stock to collapsing planktivorous fish to vanishing predatory fish and dolphins Similar effects occurred at lower trophic levels: from a decrease in zooplankton stock to an increase in phytoplankton, released from zooplankton grazing pressure. The majority of these effects were top-down, but a few were also bottom-up. Similar effects, but less pronounced, were recorded in the Sea of Marmara (Dumont and Shiganova).
    Black Sea, Romania (Romania) English 
    生態系統變化: Mnemiopsis leidyi causes negative impacts right through the foodchain of the areas it has invaded. The M. leidyi invasion negatively affected the ecosystems of the Black Sea and the Sea of Azov. The zooplankton, ichthyoplankton and zooplanktivorous fish stocks all underwent profound changes. Cascading effect occurred at the higher trophic levels, from a decreasing zooplankton stock to collapsing planktivorous fish to vanishing predatory fish and dolphins Similar effects occurred at lower trophic levels: from a decrease in zooplankton stock to an increase in phytoplankton, released from zooplankton grazing pressure. The majority of these effects were top-down, but a few were also bottom-up. Similar effects, but less pronounced, were recorded in the Sea of Marmara (Dumont and Shiganova).
    Black Sea, Russia (Russian Federation) English 
    生態系統變化: Mnemiopsis leidyi causes negative impacts right through the foodchain of the areas it has invaded. The M. leidyi invasion negatively affected the ecosystems of the Black Sea and the Sea of Azov. The zooplankton, ichthyoplankton and zooplanktivorous fish stocks all underwent profound changes. Cascading effect occurred at the higher trophic levels, from a decreasing zooplankton stock to collapsing planktivorous fish to vanishing predatory fish and dolphins Similar effects occurred at lower trophic levels: from a decrease in zooplankton stock to an increase in phytoplankton, released from zooplankton grazing pressure. The majority of these effects were top-down, but a few were also bottom-up. Similar effects, but less pronounced, were recorded in the Sea of Marmara (Dumont and Shiganova).
    Black Sea, Turkey (Turkey) English 
    生態系統變化: Mnemiopsis leidyi causes negative impacts right through the foodchain of the areas it has invaded. The M. leidyi invasion negatively affected the ecosystems of the Black Sea and the Sea of Azov. The zooplankton, ichthyoplankton and zooplanktivorous fish stocks all underwent profound changes. Cascading effect occurred at the higher trophic levels, from a decreasing zooplankton stock to collapsing planktivorous fish to vanishing predatory fish and dolphins Similar effects occurred at lower trophic levels: from a decrease in zooplankton stock to an increase in phytoplankton, released from zooplankton grazing pressure. The majority of these effects were top-down, but a few were also bottom-up. Similar effects, but less pronounced, were recorded in the Sea of Marmara (Dumont and Shiganova).
    Black Sea, Ukraine (Ukraine) English 
    生態系統變化: Mnemiopsis leidyi causes negative impacts right through the foodchain of the areas it has invaded. The M. leidyi invasion negatively affected the ecosystems of the Black Sea and the Sea of Azov. The zooplankton, ichthyoplankton and zooplanktivorous fish stocks all underwent profound changes. Cascading effect occurred at the higher trophic levels, from a decreasing zooplankton stock to collapsing planktivorous fish to vanishing predatory fish and dolphins Similar effects occurred at lower trophic levels: from a decrease in zooplankton stock to an increase in phytoplankton, released from zooplankton grazing pressure. The majority of these effects were top-down, but a few were also bottom-up. Similar effects, but less pronounced, were recorded in the Sea of Marmara (Dumont and Shiganova).



ISSG Landcare Research NBII IUCN University of Auckland