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   Mnemiopsis leidyi (梳果冻) English   
生态 分布 管理 影响 参考数据 联系


         一般影响

    淡海栉水母是主要的浮游动物掠食者,并会破坏水产养殖业(Costello, 2001)。以可食浮游动物(包含阶段性浮游生物meroplankton)、鱼卵以及幼虫为食,淡海栉水母对其入侵地区的食物链造成重大负面影响。在黑海以及亚速海的浮游动物、浮游鱼类以及以浮游动物为食的鱼类都受到明显冲击。

    黑海的生态系渐趋劣化,出现生物多样性、生物数量以及浮游生态-浮游动物的生物质量明显降低等现象(Dumont and Shiganova)。在黑海与亚速海的鱼类因为鱼卵及幼鱼被掠食而备受威胁(Shiganova 2003)。在亚速海的上述效应比黑海来的强烈且快速。在2001年所有营养阶层都受到影响,包括最上层的掠食者,里海海豹(Dumont and Shiganova)。

    从浮游动物的减少、以浮游动物为食之鱼类数量下降,直到掠食型鱼类与海豚的消失,一连串的效应发生在高层营养阶级的物种上。类似的效应也发生于低层营养阶级︰ 浮游动物减少,导致浮游植物因为被浮游动物所食的压力降低,数量便大幅增加。这些效应大多是由上到下,但有些是由下到上的。类似但较不严重的效应也发生在马摩拉海。这些效应对地中海食物链的影响尚不明显。地中海的盐度可能在最佳状态,使得多种掠食者可防止淡海栉水母过度扩张。




         地点特有的影响:
    Black Sea, Bulgaria (Bulgaria) English 
    生态系统变化: Mnemiopsis leidyi causes negative impacts right through the foodchain of the areas it has invaded. The M. leidyi invasion negatively affected the ecosystems of the Black Sea and the Sea of Azov. The zooplankton, ichthyoplankton and zooplanktivorous fish stocks all underwent profound changes. Cascading effect occurred at the higher trophic levels, from a decreasing zooplankton stock to collapsing planktivorous fish to vanishing predatory fish and dolphins Similar effects occurred at lower trophic levels: from a decrease in zooplankton stock to an increase in phytoplankton, released from zooplankton grazing pressure. The majority of these effects were top-down, but a few were also bottom-up. Similar effects, but less pronounced, were recorded in the Sea of Marmara (Dumont and Shiganova).
    Agean Sea (Europe) English 
    生态系统变化: Mnemiopsis leidyi causes negative impacts right through the foodchain of the areas it has invaded. The M. leidyi invasion negatively affected the ecosystems of the Black Sea and the Sea of Azov. The zooplankton, ichthyoplankton and zooplanktivorous fish stocks all underwent profound changes. Cascading effect occurred at the higher trophic levels, from a decreasing zooplankton stock to collapsing planktivorous fish to vanishing predatory fish and dolphins Similar effects occurred at lower trophic levels: from a decrease in zooplankton stock to an increase in phytoplankton, released from zooplankton grazing pressure. The majority of these effects were top-down, but a few were also bottom-up. Similar effects, but less pronounced, were recorded in the Sea of Marmara (Dumont and Shiganova).
    Black Sea, Georgia (Georgia) English 
    生态系统变化: Mnemiopsis leidyi causes negative impacts right through the foodchain of the areas it has invaded. The M. leidyi invasion negatively affected the ecosystems of the Black Sea and the Sea of Azov. The zooplankton, ichthyoplankton and zooplanktivorous fish stocks all underwent profound changes. Cascading effect occurred at the higher trophic levels, from a decreasing zooplankton stock to collapsing planktivorous fish to vanishing predatory fish and dolphins Similar effects occurred at lower trophic levels: from a decrease in zooplankton stock to an increase in phytoplankton, released from zooplankton grazing pressure. The majority of these effects were top-down, but a few were also bottom-up. Similar effects, but less pronounced, were recorded in the Sea of Marmara (Dumont and Shiganova).
    Black Sea (Mediterranean) English 
    生态系统变化: Mnemiopsis leidyi causes negative impacts right through the foodchain of the areas it has invaded. The M. leidyi invasion negatively affected the ecosystems of the Black Sea and the Sea of Azov. The zooplankton, ichthyoplankton and zooplanktivorous fish stocks all underwent profound changes. Cascading effect occurred at the higher trophic levels, from a decreasing zooplankton stock to collapsing planktivorous fish to vanishing predatory fish and dolphins Similar effects occurred at lower trophic levels: from a decrease in zooplankton stock to an increase in phytoplankton, released from zooplankton grazing pressure. The majority of these effects were top-down, but a few were also bottom-up. Similar effects, but less pronounced, were recorded in the Sea of Marmara (Dumont and Shiganova).
    Sea of Azov (Mediterranean) English 
    生态系统变化: Mnemiopsis leidyi causes negative impacts right through the foodchain of the areas it has invaded. The M. leidyi invasion negatively affected the ecosystems of the Black Sea and the Sea of Azov. The zooplankton, ichthyoplankton and zooplanktivorous fish stocks all underwent profound changes. Cascading effect occurred at the higher trophic levels, from a decreasing zooplankton stock to collapsing planktivorous fish to vanishing predatory fish and dolphins Similar effects occurred at lower trophic levels: from a decrease in zooplankton stock to an increase in phytoplankton, released from zooplankton grazing pressure. The majority of these effects were top-down, but a few were also bottom-up. Similar effects, but less pronounced, were recorded in the Sea of Marmara (Dumont and Shiganova).
    Black Sea, Romania (Romania) English 
    生态系统变化: Mnemiopsis leidyi causes negative impacts right through the foodchain of the areas it has invaded. The M. leidyi invasion negatively affected the ecosystems of the Black Sea and the Sea of Azov. The zooplankton, ichthyoplankton and zooplanktivorous fish stocks all underwent profound changes. Cascading effect occurred at the higher trophic levels, from a decreasing zooplankton stock to collapsing planktivorous fish to vanishing predatory fish and dolphins Similar effects occurred at lower trophic levels: from a decrease in zooplankton stock to an increase in phytoplankton, released from zooplankton grazing pressure. The majority of these effects were top-down, but a few were also bottom-up. Similar effects, but less pronounced, were recorded in the Sea of Marmara (Dumont and Shiganova).
    Black Sea, Russia (Russian Federation) English 
    生态系统变化: Mnemiopsis leidyi causes negative impacts right through the foodchain of the areas it has invaded. The M. leidyi invasion negatively affected the ecosystems of the Black Sea and the Sea of Azov. The zooplankton, ichthyoplankton and zooplanktivorous fish stocks all underwent profound changes. Cascading effect occurred at the higher trophic levels, from a decreasing zooplankton stock to collapsing planktivorous fish to vanishing predatory fish and dolphins Similar effects occurred at lower trophic levels: from a decrease in zooplankton stock to an increase in phytoplankton, released from zooplankton grazing pressure. The majority of these effects were top-down, but a few were also bottom-up. Similar effects, but less pronounced, were recorded in the Sea of Marmara (Dumont and Shiganova).
    Black Sea, Turkey (Turkey) English 
    生态系统变化: Mnemiopsis leidyi causes negative impacts right through the foodchain of the areas it has invaded. The M. leidyi invasion negatively affected the ecosystems of the Black Sea and the Sea of Azov. The zooplankton, ichthyoplankton and zooplanktivorous fish stocks all underwent profound changes. Cascading effect occurred at the higher trophic levels, from a decreasing zooplankton stock to collapsing planktivorous fish to vanishing predatory fish and dolphins Similar effects occurred at lower trophic levels: from a decrease in zooplankton stock to an increase in phytoplankton, released from zooplankton grazing pressure. The majority of these effects were top-down, but a few were also bottom-up. Similar effects, but less pronounced, were recorded in the Sea of Marmara (Dumont and Shiganova).
    Black Sea, Ukraine (Ukraine) English 
    生态系统变化: Mnemiopsis leidyi causes negative impacts right through the foodchain of the areas it has invaded. The M. leidyi invasion negatively affected the ecosystems of the Black Sea and the Sea of Azov. The zooplankton, ichthyoplankton and zooplanktivorous fish stocks all underwent profound changes. Cascading effect occurred at the higher trophic levels, from a decreasing zooplankton stock to collapsing planktivorous fish to vanishing predatory fish and dolphins Similar effects occurred at lower trophic levels: from a decrease in zooplankton stock to an increase in phytoplankton, released from zooplankton grazing pressure. The majority of these effects were top-down, but a few were also bottom-up. Similar effects, but less pronounced, were recorded in the Sea of Marmara (Dumont and Shiganova).



ISSG Landcare Research NBII IUCN University of Auckland