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   Asterias amurensis (海星) English   
生態 分佈 管理 影響 參考資料 聯繫


         一般影響

    平底海星(Asterias amurensis)(北太平洋海星)能在新領域建立龐大的族群。在港口菲力浦海灣(它們第一次被發現的地方)做的估計,指出在兩年內增加高達一千二百萬個體。在他們的原產地中,已知他們會周期性地「破滅與繁榮」,達到高豐富度後族群會迅速的下降。(NSW, 2007)

    北太平洋海星是一個雜食性捕食者,偏愛貽貝、扇貝與蛤。它幾乎吃任何東西它能發現的東西,包括死的魚與魚的廢棄物.(CSIRO, 2004)一般認為海星是原生海洋生物的嚴重害蟲。它與極度瀕危的斑點棘茄魚的族群下降有關(請參閱Brachionichthys hirsutus在 IUCN 紅皮書 )在塔斯梅尼亞,它吃棘茄魚的卵團,與/或吃海椿象(海鞘類),棘茄魚會把卵產在海椿象上面。(NSW, 2007) 海星也被認為是一個海洋生物養殖業的有害生物,會吸附在扇貝延繩釣、貝卵袋子,貽貝與牡蠣線和鮭魚籠。(CSIRO, 2004)在塔斯梅尼亞東南方,一些生產牡蠣的海水養殖場,已經受到海星影響。(NSW, 2007)

    在日本,海星族群爆發,使海洋生物養殖業損失數百萬元。(NSW, 2007; NIMPIS, 2002)




         地點特有的影響:
    Derwent Estuary (Australia) (Australia) English 
    改變自然底棲生物群落: The results of an experimental study (Ross et al. 2002) indicate that Asterias amurensis can have a large impact on the survival of juvenile bivalves; effectively arresting mass settlement events. An earlier study (Ross 2001) demonstrated the impact of the seastar on adult bivalve populations, particularly the commercial bivalves Fulvia tenuicostata and Katelysia rhytiphora. Ross et al. (2002) suggest that these combined results indicate that the seastar is "largely responsible for the decline and subsequent rarity of adult bivalves in the Derwent Estuary".

    競爭: The northern Pacific seastar has, since its arrival, become the dominant benthic invertebrate predator in the Derwent Estuary. The native invertebrate predator, the seastar Coscinasterias muricata which is present in the estuary, is unable to attain the densities of the northern seastar and maintain the densities over large areas and long periods. A. amurensis is considered to be a major threat to native assemblages. There are grave concerns of the dispersal of the seastar larvae to areas outside the estuary. The highest concentrations of seastar larvae have been recorded adjacent to the port areas in the estuary (Ross et al 2003).



ISSG Landcare Research NBII IUCN University of Auckland