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   Cyprinus carpio (魚類) English  français   
生態 分佈 管理 影響 參考資料 聯繫


         一般影響

    鯉魚的覓食習慣常會激起底質,會嚴重增加水的渾濁度(NIWA, 2003)。這會使得水域不再具有吸引力,減少了水生植物的豐富度,也可能使得水變成不適合家畜游泳或飲用(NIWA, 2003)。在某些地方,牠們已對河道造成嚴重的傷害,以致必須花費大量的金錢與人力去試著根除牠們。不幸的是,大部分的努力是不成功的(NIWA, 2003)。
    這樣的覓食行為也破壞了提供棲地給原生魚類、提供食物給水禽的著根水生植物(Dentler 1993)。「McCarraher和Gregory(1970)寫到,在1894年有文獻記載,斷線日鱸(Archoplites interruptus)因為鯉魚破壞了牠們的產卵地而變得較稀少。」(Nico, 1999)。實驗顯示鯉魚藉著激起水底沈積物,增加了水的濁度,導致大型植物因為水的清澈度降低與被連根拔起而減少了覆蓋度,也導致原固定於水底沈積物與水生大型植物內的磷被釋出。牠們也藉著掠食與破壞棲地,而降低了大型無脊椎動物的豐富度(Parkos&Wahl, 2000)。
    Bellrichard(1996)發現到大型植物生物量的改變,是由於鯉魚的直接影響。在他們的文獻的檢討中, 理查森 et al.(1995)認為鯉魚因為對生物系統的負面影響而惡名昭彰,包括造成其他魚類及鳥類所利用的生殖棲地的破壞。



         地點特有的影響:
    Algeria English 
    經濟 /民生: The common carp has some socio-economic value in Algeria (FishBase 2009).
    Argentina English 
    生態系統變化: The common carp has been implicated in environmental deterioration of some waterbodies (Ref. 1739, in FishBase 2009).

    經濟 /民生: The common carp has some adverse socio-economic effects in Argentina (FishBase 2009).

    降低本地生物多樣性: The common carp has affected B. bonariensis populations in some lakes (Ref. 1739, in FishBase 2009).
    Australia English 
    棲地改變: Effects of C. carpio were evaluated in an experimental pond in New South Wales, Australia. Turbidity increased from approximately 7 NTU to 26 and 73 NTU by Day 4, there was a complete loss of two out of five plant species tested (Charafibrosa and Vallisneria sp.) by Day 6 and surface water temperature in ponds with carp was significantly greater by Day 7. Plant reduction was attributed to uprooting rather than consumption (Roberts et al. 1995).

    競爭: Carp exhibit a range of different ecological characteristics that may result in a competitive advantage over other Australian native fish species. Carp have several reproductive advantages including lower spawning temperatures (15°C to 28.2°C) (Adamek 1998, Koehn et al. 2000, in Koehn 2004), hence earlier spawning times (Koehn & O’Connor 1990a, in Koehn 2004) and earlier access to resources than many native species.
    The diet of the common carp (C. carpio) overlaps with that of several endemic fish, such as bony bream (Nematalosa erebi), catfish (Tandanus tandanus), the IUCN Red List Vulnerable silver perch (Bidyanus bidyanus), Australian smelt (Retropinna semoni), carp gudgeon (Hypseleotris klunzingeri) and the IUCN Red List flat headed galaxias (Galaxias rostratus) (FishBase 2009).

    經濟 /民生: Although regarded as a pest by some, the common carp forms the basis for some fisheries.
    Australian Capital Territory (Australia) English 
    傳播疾病: Common carp are known carriers of the anchor worm (Lernaea cyprinacae) which can affect many native fish including large adult Murray Cod and the larvae of Golden Perch (Environment ACT Undated).
    Goulburn River valley (Australia) English 
    吃草: Fletcher et al. (1985, in Pinto et al. 2005) found that the food of Goulburn River carp consisted of soft macrophytes, including Potamogeton spp. Roberts (1995, in Pinto et al. 2005) noted that the sucking and blowing (‘mumbling’) method of feeding by carp removed Vallisneria and Chara, but Juncus ingens, Schoenoplectus validus and Myriophyllum papillosum were fairly resistant.

    捕食: Fletcher et al. (1985, in Pinto et al. 2005) found that the food of Goulburn River carp consisted mainly of macroinvertebrates.

    降低本地生物多樣性: Above a critical threshold level, increasing densities of carp may cause increasing disturbance to some aquatic plants. Circumstantial evidence is available to show that shallow-rooted and soft-leaved aquatic vegetation sensitive to disturbances such as Potamogeton spp. are most affected by high carp densities (Fletcher Morison & Hume 1985).
    Leigh Creek coal mine (Australia) English 
    競爭: The primary threat of the introduction of Cyprinus carpio is probably competition for food and other resources.
    New South Wales (Australia) English 
    傳播疾病: In other parts of the world, carp have been associated with the distribution of a range of parasites and fungal, bacterial and viral diseases; however, there have been few disease outbreaks attributed to carp in Australia (NSW Department of Primary Industries 2005).

    捕食: Juvenile carp feed mainly on zooplankton, but start consuming macro-invertebrates once they reach around 15 cm in length; there is strong evidence that carp impact on native invertebrates in still waters, but only anecdotal evidence for running waters (NSW Department of Primary Industries 2005).

    改變營養機制: There have been suggestions that carp may increase the likelihood of algal blooms by preying on zooplankton and herbivorous macroinvertebrates that eat algae, stirring up nutrients trapped in bottom sediments, damaging aquatic plants, and reducing plant growth via increased turbidity; however, carp densities may have to be very high to significantly increase the likelihood of an algal bloom (NSW Department of Primary Industries 2005).

    物理干擾: Carp feeding habits can undermine river banks leading to the collapse of banks and vegetation; however, clearing of riparian vegetation, changes to river flows through river regulation, and trampling by livestock are more important factors in bank erosion (NSW Department of Primary Industries 2005).

    生態系統變化: Carp feeding can uproot aquatic vegetation and muddy the water; carp have been blamed for damaging freshwater habitats and causing decreases in light penetration, dissolved oxygen and plant material; these changes may affect native fish (NSW Department of Primary Industries 2005).
    Carp reduce water quality by uprooting vegetation and stirring up sediments during feeding. This reduces light penetration which can make it difficult for native sight-feeding fish to feed and can limit photosynthesis of macrophytes (NSW Department of Primary Industries 2005). Suspended sediments can also smother plants and clog fish gills (NSW Department of Primary Industries 2005).
    The effects of carp on water quality are well documented; however, poor catchment management practices probably have a more substantial effect (NSW Department of Primary Industries 2005).

    降低本地生物多樣性: The effects of carp on native fish are not well understood. Negative impacts of carp are thought to include competition for food and habitats and effects on recruitment (NSW Department of Primary Industries 2005). However, many native species (such as golden perch, Murray cod, silver perch and freshwater catfish) experienced declines even before carp became widespread (NSW Department of Primary Industries 2005).
    What is clearer, however, is the affect of carp on native macrophytes. Carp have significant effects on native aquatic plants both through direct grazing and through uprooting plants while feeding, leading to a reduction in plant density and biomass; soft-leaved, shallow-rooted and submerged plants are most likely to be affected (NSW Department of Primary Industries 2005).
    South Australia (Australia) English 
    降低本地生物多樣性: Over-fishing, competition with the introduced common carp and predation by the introduced trout (Salmo trutta) have impacted upon the survival of South Australia's native fish (South Australia Government Undated). For more information on South Australia's native fish please see this factsheet from the South Australian Government.
    Botany Wetlands (Australia) English 
    改變營養機制: The removal of carp is considered to reduce bloom formation by reducing the nutrient release from sediments (Pinto et al. 2005). Although it is not yet known whether carp influence the rate of nutrient release from sediments to the water column in Australian waters (King et al. 1997, in Pinto et al. 2005), nutrient release from sediments at Botany Wetlands probably plays an important role since a thick layer of organic mud acts as a nutrient sink, and this sink is disrupted by carp activity. It is very likely that the release of nutrients to the water column was reduced by carp removal at Botany Wetlands (Pinto et al. 2005).

    改變自然底棲生物群落: Although carp (C. carpio) are an aquaculture species in many countries, they are regarded as noxious in Australia because of their adverse impacts on the environment and the native biota. They increase of turbidity, a cause of their mode of feeding, cause nutrient enrichment from sediment disturbance, stimulate algal bloom formation by nutrient enrichment, reduce macrophyte abundance and diversity, destabilise banks, compete with native fish and consume their eggs and larvae (Harris 1995, in Pinto et al. 2005).

    降低本地生物多樣性: Carp affect macrophytes in two main ways, by direct uprooting and by indirect reduction of photosynthesis through increases in turbidity. As the carp removal progressed at Botany Wetlands, the pondweed Potamogeton javanicus began to spread rapidly, indicating that carp limited its expansion.
    The occurrence of carp in densities of greater than 450 kg hectare-1 is considered to have a significant impact on aquatic macrophytes (King and Hunt 1967, in Pinto et al. 2005). Tagging results, as well as the annual catch, indicate that carp density at Botany Wetlands is approximately 300 kg hectare-1. The highest density of carp reported in a New South Wales river survey was 3144 kg hectare-1 at Lachlan River in the Murray region (Driver et al. 1997, in Pinto et al. 2005).
    Murray-Darling Basin (Australia) English 
    其他: Studies by Nicol and colleagues (2004) suggest that it is unlikely that carp and native species are directly competing for large woody debris habitat and it is unlikely that carp will inundate restored large woody debris habitats and preclude native species.

    棲地改變: A reduction in the numbers of adult common carp might improve key environmental variables in large regulated lowland rivers (Jones & Stuart 2009).

    競爭: In the Murray River large common carp have few natural predators and although the life-span is similar to many large-bodied native fish, the lifetime fecundity capacity is more than double that of the more fecund native fish such as golden perch (Macquaria ambigua) (McDowall 1996, Mallen-Cooper & Stuart 2003, in Jones & Stuart 2009).
    As the suitability of habitat for native species has declined because of river regulation, it has improved for carp (Nicol et al. 2004). As a result, carp have been able to out-compete native species for food and other resources such as positions in the river that maximise foraging and refuge from river currents and predators (Koehn et al. 2000a, in Nicol et al. 2004). However, Nicol and colleagues (2004) found the relative abundance of carp had declined since 1995 in a study area, whereas native fish abundances have remained relatively constant. If competition exists the authors would have expected native fish abundances to increase as carp abundances decreased. Therefore there exists some uncertainty as to whether carp exert competitive influences on native fish.
    Jones and Stuart (2006) demonstrated that radio-tracking of juvenile Murray cod and common carp is feasible with small radio-transmitters. Juvenile common carp appear to have a flexible strategy, using shallow, slow-flowing waters in both mainstream and offstream areas and a variety of habitat types, possibly for feeding, refuge and predator avoidance. Flexible behaviours may have contributed to their widespread success and abundance in Australia, and in rivers worldwide. In contrast, the movements and habitat use of juvenile Murray cod were usually limited and there was a distinct association with woody debris in deeper, faster flowing waters of the Murray River mainstream. These observations may reflect a heightened vulnerability of Murray cod populations to habitat removal and changes in natural flow regimes.
    Belgium English 
    經濟 /民生: Carp probably provide some socio-economic value in Belgium (FishBase 2009).
    Bolivia English 
    經濟 /民生: The common carp probably has some socio-economic value in Bolivia. At present in the department of Santa Cruz, the fish culture station El Prado is functional and produces the common carp and big headed carp. In general the national market for this species is limited.
    Cambodia English 
    經濟 /民生: The common carp has some socio-economic value in Cambodia (FishBase 2009).
    Canada English 
    生態系統變化: Common carp has some adverse effects on ecosystems in Canada (FishBase 2009).

    降低本地生物多樣性: Common carp are considered by some to be detrimental to fish stocks and bird populations (Ref. 1998, in FishBase 2009). They can destroy vegetation as well as compete for food, space and spawning grounds (Ref. 1995, in FishBase 2009).
    Chile English 
    生態系統變化: The common carp has some adverse impacts on the ecosystem. It has been blamed for ecological damage through fish egg consumption (FishBase 2009).
    Xingyun Lake (China) English 
    棲地改變: It can be suggested that C. carpio has advantages over C. pellegrini in growth and food utilisation efficiency, and lower food consumption than C. pellegrini. These physiological traits of C. carpio might allow this species to be more resistant to food shortage and predation, and may be partially responsible for the displacement of C. pellegrini by C. carpio.

    競爭: Feeding and growth traits of C. carpio and C. pellegrini were compared in three experiments, in an attempt to analyze potential causes for the displacement of the native C. pellegrini in the Xingyun Lake, Yuxi, Yunan, China. Three common trends were noted for all three experiments: (1) feeding rate of C. carpio was lower than that of C. pellegrini; (2) growth rate of C. carpio was higher than C. pellegrini; and (3) food conversion efficiency and energy retention efficiency for C. carpio were higher than those of C. pellegrini (Jia et al. 2008).
    Congo, Republic of the English 
    生態系統變化: The common carp has some adverse ecosystem impacts (FishBase 2009).

    經濟 /民生: The common carp probably has some adverse socio-economic impacts; the species is considered a pest (FishBase 2009).
    Costa Rica English 
    經濟 /民生: The common carp has some socio-economic value in Costa Rica (FishBase 2009).
    Croatia English 
    經濟 /民生: The common carp probably has some socio-economic value in Croatia. Socio-economic effect is tagged as beneficial due to aquaculture production of species in country (FAO 1997, in FishBase 2009).
    Cyprus English 
    生態系統變化: Common carp have some effects on ecosystems (FishBase 2009).

    經濟 /民生: The common carp has some socio-economic value in Cyprus (FishBase 2009).
    Estonia English 
    經濟 /民生: The common carp has some socio-economic value in Estonia (FishBase 2009).
    Hungary English 
    經濟 /民生: The common carp has some socio-economic value in Hungary (FishBase 2009).
    India English 
    物理干擾: Common carp have damaged pond walls in Madhya Pradesh, Tamil Nadu, Sikkim and Rajasthan (FishBase 2009).

    生態系統變化: The common carp has some adverse ecosystem impacts (FishBase 2009).

    競爭: It is a very hardy species and as such competes with indigenous species for food and space; in the reservoirs of upland areas the species has affected the population of some fishes such as maliseer and snow trout (FishBase 2009).

    經濟 /民生: The common carp has some socio-economic value in India, however, it is responsible for the decline of Schizothorax fishery in the wild (FishBase 2009). Leather, scale and mirror carp varieties (strains) are used in composite fish culture: the introduction of three varieties (C. carpio var. communis, C. carpio var. specularis and C. carpio var. nudus) of this species has contributed significantly to aquaculture production (FishBase 2009).
    Madhya Pradesh (India) English 
    物理干擾: Common carp have damaged pond walls in Madhya Pradesh, Tamil Nadu, Sikkim and Rajasthan (FishBase 2009).
    Rajasthan (India) English 
    物理干擾: Common carp have damaged pond walls in Madhya Pradesh, Tamil Nadu, Sikkim and Rajasthan (FishBase 2009).
    Sikkim (India) English 
    物理干擾: Common carp have damaged pond walls in Madhya Pradesh, Tamil Nadu, Sikkim and Rajasthan (FishBase 2009).
    Tamil Nadu (India) English 
    物理干擾: Common carp have damaged pond walls in Madhya Pradesh, Tamil Nadu, Sikkim and Rajasthan (FishBase 2009).
    Indonesia English 
    經濟 /民生: Carp provide some socio-economic value in Indonesia (FishBase 2009).
    Iraq English 
    經濟 /民生: The common carp has some socio-economic value (FishBase 2009).
    Kenya English 
    生態系統變化: The common carp probably has some adverse ecosystem impacts (FishBase 2009).

    經濟 /民生: The common carp has some socio-economic value in Kenya (FishBase 2009).
    Lake Naivasha (Kenya) English 
    物理干擾: The carp is a benthivore and, generally, any detrimental effects of carp are associated with its characteristic feeding behaviour which involves sucking in sediments with prey items and retaining food organisms whilst sediment particles are expelled. It is this habit of feeding on bottom sediments, which uproots aquatic plants, suspends the sediment and increases water turbidity, that makes carp an unwanted species in some water bodies (Petr 2000, in Hickley et al. 2004).

    生態系統變化: To date, adverse ecological impacts of their introduction have been less apparent and their establishment and subsequent dominance in the commercial fishery has been coincident with significant macrophyte regeneration. It is likely, however, that it is too early in the invasion of Lake Naivasha by C. carpio to assess fully their ecological impact (Britton et al. 2007).

    經濟 /民生: Carp actually provides a viable species for exploitation in a period when the catch returns of other exploited species have declined markedly (Britton et al. 2007). It is recommended that this alien introduction is not viewed as a panacea for other declining fisheries in degraded Kenyan lakes. Rather, it should act as a further warning of the threat posed by carp to fisheries currently based upon indigenous and naturalised species (Britton et al. 2007).

    降低本地生物多樣性: Any effects of carp on submerged macrophytes will be additive to the already detrimental impact of Procambarus clarkii(Hickley & Harper 2002, in Hickley et al 2004). Carp could be beneficial in consuming juvenile crayfish populations but for carp density to be sufficient for a noticeable impact might mean a carp population large enough to outweigh such value (Hickley et al 2004).
    Tana River (Kenya) English 
    降低本地生物多樣性: The common carp has replaced native tilapias as dominant species in Mazinga Reservoir in Tana River; it is criticised for its digging habits (FishBase 2009).
    Kyrgyzstan English 
    經濟 /民生: The common carp probably has some socio-economic value in Kyrgystan (FishBase 2009).
    Lesotho English 
    經濟 /民生: The common carp probably has some socio-economic value in Lesotho (FishBase 2009).
    Madagascar English 
    生態系統變化: The common carp probably has some adverse ecosystem impacts (FishBase 2009).

    競爭: The common carp is a successful aquaculture species but competes with tilapia (FishBase 2009).

    經濟 /民生: The common carp has some socio-economic value in Madagascar (FishBase 2009).
    Malawi English 
    生態系統變化: Common carp probably has some adverse effects on ecosystems (FishBase 2009).

    經濟 /民生: The common carp probably has some adverse socio-economic effects in Malawi (FishBase 2009).
    Malaysia English 
    經濟 /民生: The common carp has some socio-economic value in Malaysia (FishBase 2009).
    Mexico English 
    傳播疾病: The common carp is parasitised by Bothriocephalus acheilognathi which was introduced into the country with carp and which has become widely disseminated in the country and is found in at least 15 different fish species (Ref. 48731, in FishBase 2009).

    經濟 /民生: The common carp has some socio-economic value in Mexico (FishBase 2009).

    降低本地生物多樣性: The common carp is associated with the disappearance of native fishes in many waters (Ref. 6447, in FishBase 2009) due to its feeding habits.
    Mexico English 
    捕食: The interaction between introduced common carp (C. carpio) and a native crayfish Cambarellus montezumae was investigated by Hinojosa-Garro and Zambrano (2004). Findings suggest that carp have a negative effect on benthic crayfish population in shallow subtropical ponds. This crayfish population depletion can be produced by predation, competition or reducing crayfish habitat (macrophytes coverage). Carp gut content analysis indicates a potential predation on crayfish. However, predation seems to be the smallest part of the effect of carp on crayfish.

    棲地改變: C. carpio raises the turbidity of waters, uproots macrophytes and raises the levels of epibenthic invertebrates in Mexico where they are stocked (Zambrano et al. 1999).

    棲地改變: Native crayfish population depletion can be produced by predation, competition or reduction of habitat (macrophyte coverage) (Hinojosa-Garro and Zambrano 2004). Changes in macrophyte community by carp may promote reduction in crayfish abundance (Hinojosa-Garro and Zambrano 2004)

    競爭: Native crayfish population depletion can be produced by predation, competition or reducing crayfish habitat (macrophytes coverage) (Hinojosa-Garro and Zambrano 2004).

    降低本地生物多樣性: C. carpio is strongly correlated with decreases in macro-invertebrate populations such as crayfish in Mexico. Data suggests they prey on crayfish larvae (Hinojosa-Garro & Zambrano 2004)

    降低本地生物多樣性: The common carp is associated with the disappearance of native fishes in many waters (Ref. 6447, in FishBase 2003) due to its benthonic habits and its feeding method which destroys the nests of other species.
    Acambay valley (Mexico) English 
    捕食: The interaction between introduced common carp (C. carpio) and a native crayfish C. montezumae was investigated by Hinojosa-Garro and Zambrano (2004). Findings suggest that carp have a negative effect on benthic crayfish population in shallow subtropical ponds. This crayfish population depletion can be produced by predation, competition or reducing crayfish habitat (macrophytes coverage). Carp gut content analysis indicates a potential predation on crayfish. However, predation seems to be the smallest part of the effect of carp on crayfish.

    棲地改變: Native crayfish population depletion can be produced by predation, competition or reducing crayfish habitat (macrophytes coverage) (Hinojosa-Garro and Zambrano 2004). Changes in macrophyte community by carp may promote reduction in crayfish abundance (Hinojosa-Garro and Zambrano 2004)

    生態系統變化: A study by Zambrano and colleagues (1999) in small shallow semi-natural ponds in Acambay illustrate that the stocking of carp over the threshold value may have a detrimental ecological impact at several trophic levels (Zambrano et al. 1999). Ponds with carp tended to be turbid with high levels of suspended solids, and with few rooted macrophytes and epibenthic invertebrates; in contrast, ponds without carp had clear water and abundant rooted macrophytes and associated invertebrates, particularly gastropod molluscs (Zambrano et al. 1999). The direct uprooting of macrophytes by benthic foraging carp appeared to be the most important mechanism in switching the ponds from a clear macrophyte-dominated to a turbid state (Zambrano et al. 1999).

    競爭: Native crayfish population depletion can be produced by predation, competition or reducing crayfish habitat (macrophytes coverage) (Hinojosa-Garro and Zambrano 2004).

    經濟 /民生: The impact of the common carp upon exploitable natural food resources other than G. multiradiatus, such as the native crayfish (C. montezumae), and other endemic species of freshwater fish from nearby zones, is also unknown. Such species are consumed by the poorest people of the zone, so there may be sociological implications if the common carp causes reductions in these important protein sources (Zambrano et al. 1999). The lack of a detectable impact of the common carp upon the native fish (G. multiradiatus) suggests this native fish is not affected by changes in the bottom-benthos-macrophyte interactions. Moreover, as G. multiradiatus are also exploited as food by local people, at face value, the introduction of carp represents a net gain in the available food resource.
    Central Mexico (Mexico) English 
    棲地改變: In shallow ponds of central Mexico, populations of crayfish (Cambarellus montezumae) are reduced with high carp densities, but little is known about the mechanisms that lead to this depletion (Hinojosa-Garro & Zambrano 2004). Gut analysis shows that carp eat mostly detritus, small invertebrates, plant tissues and seeds, reducing the possibility of predation as a main cause of crayfish population reduction (Hinojosa-Garro & Zambrano 2004). Field and experimental data suggest that the effect of carp on crayfish is associated with habitat depletion; submerged macrophyte Potamogeton pectinatus and the algae Cladophora glomerata are important components in crayfish habitat, and their coverage in the water system is significantly reduced by carp presence (Hinojosa-Garro & Zambrano 2004).
    Morocco English 
    生態系統變化: The common carp probably has some adverse ecosystem impacts; it is considered a nuisance in some natural lakes (FishBase 2009).

    經濟 /民生: The common carp has some socio-economic value in Morocco (FishBase 2009).
    Mozambique English 
    經濟 /民生: The common carp probably has some socio-economic value in Mozambique (FishBase 2009).
    Myanmar (Burma) English 
    經濟 /民生: The common carp has some socio-economic value in Myanmar (FishBase 2009).
    Namibia English 
    經濟 /民生: The common carp probably does not have any significant socio-economic value in Namibia as they are rarely used in aquaculture (FishBase 2009).
    Nepal English 
    經濟 /民生: The common carp probably has some socio-economic value in Nepal (FishBase 2009).
    Netherlands English 
    物理干擾: The presence of carp in some shallow lakes in the Netherlands has played a major role in increasing turbidity (Meijer et al.1990, in Hickley et al. 2004).
    Netherlands English 
    經濟 /民生: Carp probably provide some socio-economic value in the Netherlands (FishBase 2009).
    New Zealand English 
    生態系統變化: Common carp probably have some adverse effects on ecosystems in New Zealand (FishBase 2009). They contribute to water quality deterioration and are a serious problem in New Zealand (DOC Undated).

    降低本地生物多樣性: Common carp are bottom feeders and their feeding habits generate turbidity and uproot vegetation, altering plant communities. Such damage has not been great in New Zealand where efforts are being made to contain their distribution (Ref. 13730, in FishBase 2009).
    Nicaragua English 
    經濟 /民生: The common carp has some socio-economic value in Nicaragua (FishBase 2009).
    Lake Ontario (North America) English 
    改變營養機制: Lougheed et al. (1998, in Pinto et al. 2005) noted that nutrient levels in Lake Ontario wetlands increased predictably with the increasing biomass of carp. They attributed the increase in phosphate and ammonia levels to resuspension of sediments and to carp excretion rates.

    降低本地生物多樣性: In the wetlands of Lake Ontario, where carp contributed significantly to turbidity, Lougheed et al. (1998, in Pinto et al. 2005) noted that, above a turbidity threshold of 20 NTU, there were fewer than five species of submerged macrophytes, and only Potamogeton pectinatus could thrive in highly turbid wetlands.
    Pakistan English 
    經濟 /民生: The common carp has some socio-economic value in Pakistan (FishBase 2009).

    降低本地生物多樣性: Common carp have not had adverse effects on local fauna have been so far (FishBase 2009).
    Papua New Guinea English 
    生態系統變化: The common carp probably has caused a shift in the ecological balance (Coates & Ulaiwi 1995). It has reportedly had adverse effects on the environment because of its prolific breeding habits and its sucking-mode of feeding which greatly disturbs the substratum and causes turbidity (FishBase 2009).

    競爭: The common carp reportedly competes for available food resources (Ref. 2847, in FishBase 2009).

    經濟 /民生: The contribution of carp to increased catches from the lowlands is of less importance to its known contribution to increased catches from higher altitudes, where fish are naturally in very short supply, and where some of the most severe socioeconomic deprivation in the basin occurs (Coates & Ulaiwi 1995). Apart from the increase in fish biomass, carp are considerably larger, easier to catch and a preferred species to native fish in most areas, especially in the highlands. In conclusion, the values of the species appear to outweigh its drawbacks, and therefore, its presence is regarded as contributing to sustainable development (Coates 1993b, in Coates & Ulaiwi 1995). However, some effects of an introduction can take a long time to develop and future studies might provide more definitive conclusions (Coates & Ulaiwi 1995).

    降低本地生物多樣性: The presence of carp need not necessarily lead to fish species extinctions, for which there is no evidence, but shifts in distributions and local abundances of native fish species are anticipated (Coates & Ulaiwi 1995).
    Paraguay English 
    經濟 /民生: The common carp probably has some socio-economic value in Paraguay (FishBase 2009).
    Poland English 
    棲地改變: At large densities C. carpio can significantly change habitat conditions (algal blooms), accelerating the rate of eutrophication.

    競爭: In open waters the common carp competes for food with native species.

    經濟 /民生: The common carp has some socio-economic value in Poland (FishBase 2009).
    Azores (Portugal) English 
    棲地改變: Cyprinus carpio is reported to have a detrimental effect on water quality of the Sao Miguel Lake (FishBase, 2009).
    Puerto Rico English 
    經濟 /民生: The common carp probably has some soci-economic value (FishBase 2009). An Israel strain mirror carp were introduced at the Maricao Fish Hatchery but were eliminated after two years because they were not considered useful for the fisheries programme (FishBase 2009).
    Romania English 
    經濟 /民生: The common carp has some socio-economic value in Romania (FishBase 2009).
    Singapore English 
    生態系統變化: Common carp probably have some effects on ecosystems (FishBase 2009).
    South Africa English 
    傳播疾病: The common carp has been implicated in the introduction of many fish parasites into South Africa.

    經濟 /民生: The common carp has some socio-economic value in South Africa (FishBase 2009). It is of value as a desirable angling fish and as a cheap source of protein.
    Switzerland English 
    生態系統變化: Common carp probably exert some effects on ecosystems (FishBase 2009).

    經濟 /民生: Carp probably provide some socio-economic value in Switzerland (FishBase 2009).
    Thailand English 
    經濟 /民生: The common carp has some socio-economic value in Thailand.
    Tunisia English 
    生態系統變化: Common carp probably have some effects on ecosystems (FishBase 2009).
    Turkmenistan English 
    經濟 /民生: The common carp has populated hydromeliorative systems (exclusive, perhaps, of the Atrek River) (FishBase 2009).

    雜交: The common carp has mingled "wild" carp (Ref. 30700, in FishBase 2009).
    United Kingdom (UK) English 
    棲地改變: The common carp is responsible for the destruction of aquatic habitats (Gordon Copp Pers. Comm. 2006, in FishBase 2009).
    Avon catchment (United Kingdom (UK)) English 
    其他: Notwithstanding the negative impacts, some values may occur as the species is popular with specialist anglers (Nunn et al. 2007).
    Trent River (United Kingdom (UK)) English 
    其他: Notwithstanding the negative impacts, some recreactional value may be had by the common carp, which is popular with specialist anglers (Nunn et al. 2007).
    Gulf of Mexico US Watershed (United States (USA)) English 
    捕食: Cyprinus carpio prey on fish eggs and larvae.

    改變自然底棲生物群落: Cyprinus carpio stir up bottom sediments during feeding, thereby causing increased siltation and turbidity which is detrimental to other species.
    Lake Utah (United States (USA)) English 
    棲地改變: Macrophytes provide essential structural refugia for larval fish and invertebrates (Hutchinson 1975, Lodge 1991, Newman 1991, Persson & Crowder 1998, in Miller & Provenza 2007). Loss of macrophyte refuges is the main source of mortality for larval and juvenile endangered june suckers (Chasmistes liorus, a remnant species from the late Pleistocene (Crowl Thomas & Vinson 1998, in Miller & Provenza 2007). Due to predation by non-native species, habitat degradation, and the lack of structural habitat to serve as refuge, long-term recovery of the june sucker in Utah Lake is not likely unless managers can re-vegetate the lake with macrophytes resistant to carp (Miller & Provenza 2007).

    降低本地生物多樣性: Common carp have caused considerable damage to the macrophytes and endemic fishes of this freshwater ecosystem (Heckman Thompson & White 1981, in Miller & Provenza 2007). Vegetation maps from the mid-1800s, prior to carp introduction, show the lake covered with extensive macrophyte communities (National Archives Microfilm Publications 1850-1902, Brotherson, 1981, in Miller & Provenza 2007). Today these communities are virtually nonexistent, and only three macrophytes remain in Utah Lake (Stuckenia pectinata, Typha latifolia and Scirpus validus (Miller & Provenza 2007). Ceratophyllum demersum has been extirpated entirely and Chara aspera occurs only in tributaries running into the lake (Miller & Provenza 2007).
    Uruguay English 
    生態系統變化: Common carp probably have some effects on ecosystems (FishBase 2009).
    Venezuela English 
    降低本地生物多樣性: The common carp has reportedly locally eliminated some native species (FishBase 2009).
    Viet Nam (Vietnam) English 
    經濟 /民生: The common carp has some socio-economic value in Vietnam (FishBase 2009).



ISSG Landcare Research NBII IUCN University of Auckland