人类健康: On Guam the brown tree snake has been held responsible for the for loss of domestic animals and for the envenomation of human babies (Fritts et al. 1990; Fritts &McCoid In Press, in Rodda et al 1992). It is responsible for one of every thousand hospital emergency room visits on the island (United States Department of Defense 2008).
威胁濒危物种: Results of a study by Wiles et al (2003) indicate that 22 species have been severely affected by the brown tree snake including the Extinct Guam flycatcher (Myiagra freycineti), the Extinct in the Wild Guam rail (Gallirallus owstoni), the Critically Endangered nightingale reed-warbler (Acrocephalus luscinius), the Endangered Mariana fruit-Dove (Ptilinopus roseicapilla)), the Endangered bridled white-eye (Zosterops conspicillatus), the Near Threatened white-throated ground-dove (Gallicolumba xanthonura), the white-tailed tropicbird (Phaethon lepturus), the brown booby (Sula leucogaster), the Micronesian kingfisher (Todiramphus cinnamominus), the rufous fantail (Rhipidura rufifrons), the Micronesian honeyeater (Myzomela rubratra) and the chestnut munia (Lonchura atricapilla). Categories of species are taken from the IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. The three species which were nearly or temporarily extirpated include the brown noddy (Anous stolidus), the white tern (Gygis alba) and the Mariana crow (Corvus kubaryi). The four species which showed a decline of >90% and are 'not recovering' include the island collared-dove, the Mariana swiftlet, the black drongo and the Micronesian starling.
捕食: The predatory nature of the brown tree snake has caused the extinction of most of the island’s native bird species and six out of 10 to 12 native lizard species (Savidge 1987; Rodda & Fritts 1992; Fritts & Rodda 1998). Likewise, two of Guam’s three bat species have disappeared (Wiles 1987; Fritts & Rodda 1998). The brown tree snake is a major predator of the juveniles of the Marianas fruit bat (Pteropus mariannus) (Haynes and Marler 2005; Esselstyn 2006). The bat is listed as Endangered on the IUCN Red List of Threatened Species and juvenile Marinara fruit bats are preyed upon so heavily by B. irregularis that within-island recruitment has been halted for many years (Esseltyn 2006).
生态系统变化: The introduction of an alien top predator, the brown treesnake, has resulted in severe losses of native vertebrate populations in Guam. Among these are important pollinators and seed dispersers including lizards and birds (Mortensen et al. 2008). By reducing populations of native birds, which pollinate and disperse native plants, the brown tree snake disrupts native ecosystem functioning and theatens native plant species. These "cascading ecosystem effects" were first documented in relation to the brown tree snake in Guam by Mortensen et al (2008) who investigated seed set of the mangrove tree Bruguiera gymnorrhiza (which is in urgent need of conservation and restoration in the Mariana Islands; Vogt & Williams 2004, in Mortensen et al. 2008) and the forest tree Erythrina variegata var. orientalis on Guam (with high density of snakes) and Saipan (with nearly no snakes). Seed set of both species were significantly higher on Saipan compared to Guam. The eradication of flower-visiting birds by the invasive treesnake thus secondarily results in broken mutualistic interactions, which may, in turn, result in a lower recruitment of native plants (Mortensen et al. 2008). The loss of most insectivorous birds and many lizard species also leaves Guam vulnerable to a variety of insect pests (Fritts & Rodda 1998, Rodda et al. 1999).
经济 /民生: The brown tree snake causes electrical problems creating short circuits by simultaneously touching live and grounded conductors. Such occurrences may happen as frequently as once a week on the island (Westbrook & Ramos 2005). Millions of dollars in damaged equipment, lost productivity, and repair costs result from snake-caused power outages in Guam (Fritts et al 1987 in Avery et al 2004).
The poultry industry is affected from loss of eggs due to the brown tree snake.
The presence of snakes may encourage tourists to chose other islands over Guam as a destination, harming the tourism industry (Rodda & Savage 2007).
Saipan Is. (Northern Mariana Islands)
威胁濒危物种: The introduction of the brown tree snake could potentially endanger threatened species on the island (see location notes).