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   Carduus nutans (草本植物) English   
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    飞廉(Carduus nutans)在其入侵的地方,是农地的一个麻烦问题,因为它会与原生牧草及农作物竞争,阻碍牲畜移动,因为牲畜不愿意穿过它。因为它的种子产量大,原生植物会被它竞逐排挤掉。它传播种子的时间很长,种子散播在母株附近,创造出密集的植群,排挤调原生植物。它会减少草场牧草数量,进而减少放牧动物的产量。它会钩住,羊毛造成白斑,减少羊毛的价值。种子会混杂在牧草种子和作物种子之中,很难辨认出来。

    United States (USA) English 
    农业: Competes with crops, forage for livestock, and impedes the movement of livestock because they avoid entering the dense stands.

    竞争: Affects ecosystems by competing with native plants, including rare and endangered species.

    经济 /民生: Costs farmers in the United States and Canada millions of dollars each year in lost crop yields and management expenses.
    New Mexico (United States (USA)) English 
    竞争: In New Mexico, C. nutans is also encroaching on the habitat of rare and endangered species, such as Mescalero thistle (Cirsium vinaceum ), which grows in springs, seeps, and marshy valley bottoms in east of this state. C. vinaceum is closely related to C. nutans , making control techniques, such as herbicides, difficult to use without killing both species.

ISSG Landcare Research NBII IUCN University of Auckland