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   Capra hircus (mammifère) English     
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         Étude de cas sur les impacts
    Anguilla English 
    Altération d'habitat: Goats are having a major detrimental influence on vegetation of Anegada Is. (Miller et al., 1999 in Varnham 2006) and other islands where they are present.

    Menace pour les espèces en danger: It is believed that feral goats compete with the native 'Vulnerable (VU)' lesser Antillean iguanas (see Iguana delicatissima in IUCN Red List of Threatened Species) for food, and alter plant community structure by selective browsing. Feral goats can also damage sensitive iguana nesting sites by trampling (Cronk, 1986 in Varnham, 2006).
    Goats also impact on the largest colony of Magnificent Frigatebirds (Fregata magnificens) in the E. Caribbean (Davis et al., 2001 in Varnham, 2006).
    Anegada Is. (British Virgin Islands) English 
    Altération d'habitat: Feral goats, Capra hircus are having a major detrimental influence on vegetation of Anegada Is. (Veitch, 1998 in Varnham, 2006) and other islands where they are present.

    Réduction de la biodiversité indigène: Feral goats, Capra hircus also impact on the largest colony of Magnificent Frigate birds (Fregata magnificens)in the E. Caribbean (Woodfield, 2005 in Varnham, 2006).
    Great Tobago Is. (British Virgin Islands) English 
    Altération d'habitat: Feral goats, Capra hircus are having a major detrimental influence on vegetation of Anegada Is. (Veitch, 1998 in Varnham, 2006) and other islands where they are present.

    Réduction de la biodiversité indigène: Feral goats, Capra hircus also impact on the largest colony of Magnificent Frigate birds (Fregata magnificens)in the E. Caribbean (Woodfield, 2005 in Varnham, 2006).
    Bay Cay (Cayman Islands) English 
    Menace pour les espèces en danger: Capra hircus pose a serious threat to the the native 'Critically Endangered (CR)' Turks & Caicos rock iguana (see Cyclura carinata in IUCN Red List of Threatened Species), presumably through competition for food plants, altering the vegetational composition of habitats and trampling soft substrates where iguanas burrow or nest (Alberts, 2000 in Varnham, 2006; Mitchell et al., 2002 in Varnham, 2006).
    Major Hill Cay (Cayman Islands) English 
    Menace pour les espèces en danger: Capra hircus pose a serious threat to the the native 'Critically Endangered (CR)' Turks & Caicos rock iguana (see Cyclura carinata in IUCN Red List of Threatened Species), presumably through competition for food plants, altering the vegetational composition of habitats and trampling soft substrates where iguanas burrow or nest (Alberts, 2000 in Varnham, 2006; Mitchell et al., 2002 in Varnham, 2006).
    Parrot Cay (Cayman Islands) English 
    Menace pour les espèces en danger: Capra hircus pose a serious threat to the the native 'Critically Endangered (CR)' Turks & Caicos rock iguana (see Cyclura carinata in IUCN Red List of Threatened Species), presumably through competition for food plants, altering the vegetational composition of habitats and trampling soft substrates where iguanas burrow or nest (Alberts, 2000 in Varnham, 2006; Mitchell et al., 2002 in Varnham, 2006).
    Îles des Saintes (Guadeloupe) français  English 
    Herbivorie: Aux Iles des Saintes, les populations de chèvres sauvages ont particulièrement contribué à la modification du paysage et de la structure de la végétation. Une prospection de l’Association Guadeloupéenne d’Orchidophilie en août 2007 a révélé que l’orchidée protégée Brassavola cucullata est fortement broutée sur l’îlet Kahouanne, une de ses dernières zones de présence (Feldmann, pers. comm., 2007).
    Mayotte français  English 
    Herbivorie: Bien qu’il n’existe aucune information sur l’impact lié au pâturage des chèvres sur la végétation indigène, le pâturage caprin est un facteur très important de l’érosion à Mayotte, notamment dans les zones sèches (Barthelat, pers comm, 2007).
    New Caledonia (Nouvelle Caledonie) français  English 
    Herbivorie: L'impact de Capra hircus sur la biodiversité néo-calédonienne est peu documenté. Sur un site de forêt sèche de la Province Sud les chèvres, associées au cerf de Java (Cervus timorensis russa) empêchent la régénération de plantes indigènes et endémiques et menacent d’extinction un ligneux endémique (Ochrosia inventorum) dont la distribution actuelle connue est limité à ce site (De Garine-Wichatitsky et al., 2004).
    Auckland Is. (sub-Antarctic) (New Zealand) English 
    Réduction de la biodiversité indigène: In a study conducted by Chimera, Coleman and Parkes (1995) the rumen contents of 49 goats (captured in 1989) were identified and the dry weight of each component was measured to produce a breakdown of the diet of this small remnant population of feral goats on Auckland Island (a subantarctic island with a cold and harsh climate located south of New Zealand). Woody plants and grasses made up the bulk of their diet (41% and 39%, respectively); seaweeds made up 13%, ferns 4% and herbaceous species 3%. At least 40 plant species were eaten by the goats, but only three species, rata (Metrosideros umbellate), snow tussock (Chionochloa Antarctica), and kelp (Durvillea Antarctica), made up half of the total. Rata (Metrosideros umbellate), Coprosma foetidissima, Pseudopanax simplex and Carex appressa were the most commonly found species - eaten in at least some quantity by 90%, 80%, 76% and 69% of the goats (respectively). Unidentified grasses composed 21.4% of the total contents (dry weight) and were found in 100% of goats.
    New Zealand English 
    Herbivorie: Goats have been recognised as “the single most destructive herbivore” introduced to the islands of the world (King 1985). By eating young trees in a forest they prevent the replacement of adult trees that form the forest canopy.
    Banks Peninsula (New Zealand) English 
    Menace pour les espèces en danger: The populations of feral goats and pigs on Great Barrier Island threaten the survival of several endangered New Zealand species. These include the kokako (see Callaeas cinerea in IUCN Red List of Threatened Species) and Hochstetter’s frog (see Leiopelma hochstetteri in IUCN Red List of Threatened Species), and several plants including Mestegis apetala and Fuchsia procumbens (Parkes 1990).

    Modification de l'écosystème: The potential impact of goat browsing on Banks Peninsula is large, as goats are able to reach all but the most inaccessible land in the area, threatening the numerous unique plant communities and endemic plants found on the peninsula (Parkes 2003).

    Modification des modes de succession: Natural successional processes that occur in the unique native plant communities on Banks Peninsula may be indirectly disrupted by goat browsing (Parkes 2003).

    Réduction de la biodiversité indigène: Native plants that are particularly palatable to, and favoured by, goats on the Banks Peninsula include mahoe (Melicytus ramiflorus), pate (Schefflera digitata) and large-leaved coprosma (Parkes 2003).
    Macauley Is. (New Zealand) English 
    Réduction de la biodiversité indigène: Sykes (1969) was convinced that some of the endemic species once present on Macauley Island were eliminated due to goat browsing.
    Raoul Is. (New Zealand) English 
    Altération d'habitat: Browsing of native vegetation by goats on Raoul Island has caused changes in the vegetation structure of the forests because of the unpalatability of the two main understorey trees, Myrsine kermadecensis Chessem. and Ascarina lucida var. lanceolata (Hook. f.). Allan (Sykes 1969). These species were probably more common in 1966-67 than previously and were found to form dense pure stands in the dry and wet forests (respectively). The fern Pteris comans, also reportedly unpalatable to the goats, was also thought to be more common on the island due to its selective advantage (Sykes 1969).

    Interaction avec d'autres espèces envahissantes: The introduced terrestrial aroid Alocasia macrorrhiza (L.) Schott., is unpalatable to the goats, a trait which is thought to have given it a selective advantage on the island, allowing it increase markedly in number to dominate large areas of the forest (Sykes 1969). This large-leaved plant restricts light reaching the forest floor and inhibits the regeneration of woody species. In addition to Alocasia a number of other introduced plants increased at the expense of indigenous flora due to their unpalatability to goats (Sykes 1969).

    Modification des modes de succession: The forests of Raoul Island are mainly dominated by the Kermadec pohutukawa (Metrosideros kermadecensis W.R.B. Oliver) (Sykes 1969). Sykes (1969) reported that this is a favoured species by goats and in most areas observed on the island (before goat control) little or no young seedlings of this species were observed. As this is the main canopy tree, its disappearance over large parts of the island would obviously have resulted in drastic changes to the rest of the vegetation as well. (A similar effect to this has been realised on Cuvier Island near the New Zealand coast). The Raoul forests are noted also for their large tree ferns (belonging to two endemic species of Cyathea). Sykes (1969) hypothesised that these had became notably less common because of the inhibition of regeneration by the goats. Seedlings of the endemic Coprosma acutifolia Hook. F. were also reported to be reduced by the goats; the plant is a principal component of the understorey layer in dry forests and the canopy in wet forests (Sykes 1969).

    Réduction de la biodiversité indigène: The destruction of indigenous flora by goats was noted in 1908 (Oliver 1910, in Parkes 1984). A botanical survey conducted in 1966/67 and reported by Sykes (1969) revealed that at least one endemic species, Hebe breviracemosa, which is very palatable to goats, was nearly extinct. The survey also made light of the following points. Homalanthus polyandrous, Boehmeria dealbata and Pseudopanax kermadecense were reported to be uncommon due to the browsing activity of the goats. Whilst the mature trees were relatively unaffected, the regeneration of these species appeared to be inhibited. Regeneration of the endemic Kermadec nikau, Rhopalostylis cheesmanii, wharangi, Melicope ternate and karaka, Corynocarpus laevigatus has also probably been kept in check by goat browsing. Other palatable species, such as the karo (Pittosporum crassifolium) and the endemic Kermadec taupata (Coprosma petiolata), were mainly confined to the cliff faces. The Kermadec ngaio, once a characteristic of the coastal scrub, had also been greatly reduced in many parts of Raoul Island. Olivier (1910) noted that goats barked parapara trees (Heimerliodendron brunonianum) and they seemed to be nearly extinct by 1967. Goats have also been known to climb Kermadec pohutukawa and mahoe Melicytus ramiflorus to browse epiphytic ferns (particularly Asplenium). The ice plant Disphyma australe, abundant on the coast, was also browsed by the goats.
    Egmont National Park (New Zealand) English 
    Réduction de la biodiversité indigène: By the 1920s the impact of goat browsing on local and indigenous vegetation on Mt Taranaki began to be noted (Thomson 1922, in Parkes 1990).
    Cuvier Is. (New Zealand) English 
    Herbivorie: Goats have been recognised as “the single most destructive herbivore” introduced to the islands of the world (King 1985). By eating young trees in a forest they prevent the replacement of adult trees that form the forest canopy.

    Réduction de la biodiversité indigène: Atkinson (1960) reported on the devastating effect that browsing goats had inflicted upon the vegetation of Cuvier Island. The forest was originally dominated by the New Zealand pohutukawa Metrosideros excelsa Gaertn. However, the regeneration of this and other tree species has been completely halted, and on the seaward slopes there was little of this original woody vegetation left (Sykes 1969).
    A 36-year study of forest recovery since the eradication of goats showed that more than two-thirds of the tree and shrub species present had been reduced by goats, some to very low numbers. At least six other plant species on the island had probably been eliminated by goats (Atkinson, in prep.). In addition, early indications are that at least six plant species became extinct on the island as a result of goats
    Agrigan (Aguigan, Aguijan) Is. (Northern Mariana Islands) English 
    Herbivorie: Goats exterminated much of the original vegetation in early 1940s (DiSalvatore 1981).
    Pitcairn English 
    Herbivorie: Serious soil erosion follows the deforestation caused by the goats (Moverly 1953: 65)
    Pitcairn English 
    Altération d'habitat: Deforestation, leading to soil erosion (Moverly 1953, in Varnham 2005).
    Pitcairn English 
    Altération d'habitat: Capra hircus causes deforestation, leading to soil erosion (Moverly, 1953 in Varnham, 2006)
    La Palma Is. (Spain) English 
    Altération d'habitat: The Endangered (EN) Col de Risco (Crambe microcarpa) is endemic to the island of La Palma, Canary Islands, Spain. The major threat to the survival of this species is browzing and trampling by goats (Capra hircus) and the introduced game species aoudad (Ammotragus lervia) leading to decline in population and habitat destruction (Guerra 2011).

    Prédation: Endemic to the island of La Palma, the Canary Islands, Spain, Centaurea (Cheirolophus santos-abreui) is listed as Critically Endangered (CR) in the IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. The main threats to the survival of this species is browzing/herbivory and trampling by feral goats and introduced game species aoudad (Ammotragus lervia) leading to decline in populations and habitat destruction. Other threats include competition with the invasive alien plant (Ageratina adenophora) and seed predation by the animal parasite (Chaetorellia sp.) (Cáceres et al 2011).

    Prédation: Native to the Canary Islands and found on La Palma and Tenerife, Garbancera canaria (Cicer canariense) is listed as Endangered (EN) in the IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. The main threats to the survival of this species is the threat posed by introduced herbivores such as rabbits (Oryctolagus cuniculus), goats, sheep (Ovis aries); and the game species Ovis musimom and aoudad (Ammotragus lervia) (Guerra & Betancort 2011).

    Prédation: The Endangered (EN) Col de Risco (Crambe microcarpa) is endemic to the island of La Palma, Canary Islands, Spain. The major threat to the survival of this species is browzing and trampling by goats and the introduced game species aoudad (Ammotragus lervia) leading to decline in population and habitat destruction (Guerra 2011).

    Prédation: The Vulnerable (VU) Retamón (Genista benehoavensis) is endemic to the island of La Palma, Canary Islands, Spain. The major threat to the survival of this species is predation by goats; rabbits (Oryctolagus cuniculus) and the introduced aoudad (Ammotragus lervia) (Alamo et al 2011)

    Prédation: The La Palma endemic (Lactuca palmensis) is listed as Least Concern (LC) in the IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Threats to this species include predation by feral goats, rabbits (Oryctolagus cuniculus) and the introduced game species aoudad (Ammotragus lervia) (Guerra 2011)
    Tenerife (Spain) English 
    Prédation: Native to the Canary Islands and found on La Palma and Tenerife, Garbancera canaria (Cicer canariense) is listed as Endangered (EN) in the IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. The main threats to the survival of this species is the threat posed by introduced herbivores such as rabbits (Oryctolagus cuniculus); goats (Capra hircus); sheep (Ovis aries); and the game species Ovis musimom and aoudad (Ammotragus lervia) (Guerra & Betancort 2011).
    Canarias (Spain) English 
    Prédation: Endemic to the island of La Palma, the Canary Islands, Spain, Centaurea (Cheirolophus santos-abreui) is listed as Critically Endangered (CR) in the IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. The main threats to the survival of this species is browzing/herbivory and trampling by feral goats and introduced game species aoudad (Ammotragus lervia) leading to decline in populations and habitat destruction. Other threats include competition with the invasive alien plant (Ageratina adenophora) and seed predation by the animal parasite (Chaetorellia sp.) (Cáceres et al 2011).

    Prédation: Native to the Canary Islands and found on La Palma and Tenerife, Garbancera canaria (Cicer canariense) is listed as Endangered (EN) in the IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. The main threats to the survival of this species is the threat posed by introduced herbivores such as rabbits (Oryctolagus cuniculus); goats; sheep (Ovis aries); and the game species Ovis musimom and aoudad (Ammotragus lervia) (Guerra & Betancort 2011).
    Cotton Cay (Turks and Caicos Islands) English 
    Menace pour les espèces en danger: Capra hircus pose a serious threat to the the native 'Critically Endangered (CR)' Turks & Caicos rock iguana (see Cyclura carinata in IUCN Red List of Threatened Species), presumably through competition for food plants, altering the vegetational composition of habitats and trampling soft substrates where iguanas burrow or nest (Alberts, 2000 in Varnham, 2006; Mitchell et al., 2002 in Varnham, 2006).
    Turks and Caicos Islands English 
    Menace pour les espèces en danger: Capra hircus pose a serious threat to the the native 'Critically Endangered (CR)' Turks & Caicos rock iguana (see Cyclura carinata in IUCN Red List of Threatened Species), presumably through competition for food plants, altering the vegetational composition of habitats and trampling soft substrates where iguanas burrow or nest (Alberts, 2000 in Varnham, 2006; Mitchell et al., 2002 in Varnham, 2006).
    Hawaii (Hawai‘i) Is. (United States (USA)) English 
    Herbivorie: Goats have been recognised as “the single most destructive herbivore” introduced to the islands of the world (King 1985). By eating young trees in a forest they prevent the replacement of adult trees that form the forest canopy.



ISSG Landcare Research NBII IUCN University of Auckland