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   Xylella fastidiosa (微生物) English 
生態 分佈 管理 影響 參考資料 聯繫


         一般影響

    賽爾(2001)報告指出,葉緣焦枯菌(Xylella fastidiosa)從患病植物傳播到健康植物的途徑是經由昆蟲口器刺入或吮吸,如吃木質部(負責從根部輸送水分和礦物質的植物組織)的葉蟬。葉緣焦枯菌(Xylella fastidiosa)會導致多種植物病害:梨葉緣焦枯菌,夾竹桃葉焦枯,假桃病,杏葉焦枯,苜蓿矮化,柑橘雜色萎黃,橡木細菌性葉焦枯,咖啡細菌性葉焦枯,楓葉焦枯,桑葉枯黃,榆樹葉片枯黃等疾病。葉緣焦枯菌已成為葡萄產業一個嚴重的問題,由於其入侵性的寄主草翅葉蟬(Homalodisca coagulata)。這個新的載體對加州的葡萄園是一個嚴重的新威脅,因為它比本地葉蟬移動得更快,更遠。草翅葉蟬棲息在柑橘和一些木本觀賞植物中,數量非常多,使得附近的葡萄園受到葉緣焦枯菌的風險增加。杏仁葉焦枯病過去是美國加州杏仁果園的一個小問題,因為它過去只是零星出現,但現在它正在成為一個嚴重的問題。因為草翅葉蟬繼續蔓延,研究人員擔心,杏仁葉焦枯病也有可能更廣泛地遍佈整個加州(Carol 2000)。



         地點特有的影響:
    Argentina English 
    經濟 /民生: The coffee industry is suffering economically because of losses caused by X. fastidiosa.

    農業: The coffee industry is suffering due to the lack of and stunted fruit growth.
    Brazil English 
    經濟 /民生: The loss of citrus orchards to X. fastidiosa causes major economic losses.

    農業: Citrus Variegated Chlorosis is a major problem in citrus orchards in Brazil.
    Central Tulare (United States (USA)) English 
    經濟 /民生: The almond industry is suffering economically because of the lack of effective control measures for the spread of X. fastidiosa.

    與其他入侵物種相互作用: The invasive insect host, glassy-winged sharpshooter (Homalodisca coagulata), carries X. fastidiosa and is a serious threat to the almond industry. This new vector moves faster and longer distances than native sharpshooters.

    農業: Almond leaf scorch is a problem in almond orchards.
    Contra Costa (United States (USA)) English 
    經濟 /民生: The almond industry is suffering economically because of the lack of effective control measures for the spread of X. fastidiosa.

    與其他入侵物種相互作用: The invasive insect host, glassy-winged sharpshooter (Homalodisca coagulata), carries X. fastidiosa and is a serious threat to the almond industry. This new vector moves faster and longer distances than native sharpshooters.

    農業: Almond leaf scorch is a problem in almond orchards.
    Imperial Valley (United States (USA)) English 
    經濟 /民生: The loss of crop yields can cause economic loss to alfalfa farmers.

    農業: The coffee industry is suffering due to the lack of and stunted fruit growth.
    Los Angeles (United States (USA)) English 
    經濟 /民生: The almond industry is suffering economically because of the lack of effective control measures for the spread of X. fastidiosa.

    與其他入侵物種相互作用: The invasive insect host, glassy-winged sharpshooter (Homalodisca coagulata), carries X. fastidiosa and is a serious threat to the almond industry. This new vector moves faster and longer distances than native sharpshooters.

    農業: Almond leaf scorch is a problem in almond orchards.
    Madera County (United States (USA)) English 
    經濟 /民生: The loss of crop yields can cause economic loss to alfalfa farmers.

    農業: The coffee industry is suffering due to the lack of and stunted fruit growth.
    Northern Solano (United States (USA)) English 
    經濟 /民生: The almond industry is suffering economically because of the lack of effective control measures for the spread of X. fastidiosa.

    與其他入侵物種相互作用: The invasive insect host, glassy-winged sharpshooter (Homalodisca coagulata), carries X. fastidiosa and is a serious threat to the almond industry. This new vector moves faster and longer distances than native sharpshooters.

    農業: Almond leaf scorch is a problem in almond orchards.
    Northern Stanislaus (United States (USA)) English 
    經濟 /民生: The almond industry is suffering economically because of the lack of effective control measures for the spread of X. fastidiosa.

    與其他入侵物種相互作用: The invasive insect host, glassy-winged sharpshooter (Homalodisca coagulata), carries X. fastidiosa and is a serious threat to the almond industry. This new vector moves faster and longer distances than native sharpshooters.

    農業: Almond leaf scorch is a problem in almond orchards.
    Riverside (United States (USA)) English 
    經濟 /民生: The almond industry is suffering economically because of the lack of effective control measures for the spread of X. fastidiosa.

    與其他入侵物種相互作用: The invasive insect host, glassy-winged sharpshooter (Homalodisca coagulata), carries X. fastidiosa and is a serious threat to the almond industry. This new vector moves faster and longer distances than native sharpshooters.

    農業: Almond leaf scorch is a problem in almond orchards.
    San Joaquin (United States (USA)) English 
    經濟 /民生: The almond industry is suffering economically because of the lack of effective control measures for the spread of X. fastidiosa.

    與其他入侵物種相互作用: The invasive insect host, glassy-winged sharpshooter (Homalodisca coagulata), carries X. fastidiosa and is a serious threat to the almond industry. This new vector moves faster and longer distances than native sharpshooters.

    農業: Almond leaf scorch is a problem in almond orchards.
    Southern California (United States (USA)) English 
    經濟 /民生: The loss of crop yields can cause economic loss to alfalfa farmers.

    農業: The coffee industry is suffering due to the lack of and stunted fruit growth.
    United States (USA) English 
    經濟 /民生: The grape industry is suffering economically because of the lack of effective control measures for the spread of X. fastidiosa.

    與其他入侵物種相互作用: The invasive insect host, glassy-winged sharpshooter (Homalodisca coagulata), carries X. fastidiosa and is a serious threat to the grape industry. This new vector moves faster and longer distances than native sharpshooters. It inhabits citrus and some woody ornamentals in unusually high numbers, making nearby vineyards vulnerable to Pierce’s Disease and increasing the risk of the introduction of the Citrus Variegated Chlorosis strain of X. fastidiosa into the United States.

    農業: Pierce's Disease is a major problem in vineyards.
    Arizona (United States (USA)) English 
    滋擾人類: Oleander is an ornamental plant that is killed by X. fastidiosa.
    California (United States (USA)) English 
    滋擾人類: Oleander is an ornamental plant that is killed by X. fastidiosa.
    California (United States (USA)) English 
    經濟 /民生: Glassy winged sharpshooters (GWSS) have been spreading plant-damaging Xylella fastidiosa bacteria in southern California vineyards since the 1990s. X. fastidiosa causes a variety of costly plant diseases, including Pierce's disease in grapevines and leaf scorch in oleanders. Grape growers in Riverside and San Diego counties have lost about $38 million due to Pierce's disease.
    Texas (United States (USA)) English 
    滋擾人類: Oleander is an ornamental plant that is killed by X. fastidiosa.



ISSG Landcare Research NBII IUCN University of Auckland