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   Phragmites australis (草) English   
生態 分佈 管理 影響 參考資料 聯繫


         一般影響

    Marks等(1993),許多國家將認為蘆葦“良性”,很少或根本不會對其他物種構成威脅,應讓它維持不變。穩定族群可能很難與外來族群區分。蘆葦蔓延出現在任何時間和地點,都會是一個問題,會使其他物種社群減少。由於道路,水圍塘,海堤和潮閘對潮汐施加限制,許多大西洋沿岸濕地系統已被入侵。這些入侵可能威脅野生動物,因為蘆葦改變了大米草沼澤相當多樣化的結構和功能(羅馬等。1984,Mark等人, 1993)。在美國許多東岸的魚類和野生生物避難所,這是一個麻煩問題。這些入侵的蘆葦也可能會增加濕地發生林火的可能性,尤其是當冬季時植物地上的部分死亡,乾枯(裡默1973,in Marks等人, 1993)。密集聚集的紅翅烏鴉(Agelaius phoeniceus)會優先選擇在蘆葦植株中築巢,增加附近飛機發生事故的機會。幾乎不可能在茂密的蘆葦植群,監測和控制蚊子滋生(埃林斯和加拉格爾 1992,Marks等人, 1993)。此外,入侵的蘆葦還會有不良的美學影響。



         地點特有的影響:
    Connecticut (United States (USA)) English 
    其他: The invasions may threaten wildlife because they alter the structure and function of relatively diverse marshes (Roman et al 1984, in Marks et al1993).

    改變林火機制: The invasions also increase the potential for marsh fires during the winter when the above ground portions of the plant die and dry out (Reimer 1973, in Marks et al1993).

    物理干擾: The monitoring and control of mosquito breeding is nearly impossible in dense stands (Hellings and Gallagher 1992, in Marks et al1993).

    競爭: VDCR / VNPS (Undated) states that it has become a destructive weed, quickly displacing desirable plant species. Marks et al (1993) state that it is typically the dominant species on areas that it occupies. It often forms dense, virtually monospecific stands.
    Maine (United States (USA)) English 
    其他: The invasions may threaten wildlife because they alter the structure and function of relatively diverse marshes (Roman et al 1984, in Marks et al1993).

    改變林火機制: The invasions also increase the potential for marsh fires during the winter when the above ground portions of the plant die and dry out (Reimer 1973, in Marks et al1993).

    物理干擾: The monitoring and control of mosquito breeding is nearly impossible in dense stands (Hellings and Gallagher 1992, in Marks et al1993).

    競爭: VDCR / VNPS (Undated) states that it has become a destructive weed, quickly displacing desirable plant species. Marks et al (1993) state that it is typically the dominant species on areas that it occupies. It often forms dense, virtually monospecific stands.
    Massachusetts (United States (USA)) English 
    其他: The invasions may threaten wildlife because they alter the structure and function of relatively diverse marshes (Roman et al 1984, in Marks et al1993).

    改變林火機制: The invasions also increase the potential for marsh fires during the winter when the above ground portions of the plant die and dry out (Reimer 1973, in Marks et al1993).

    物理干擾: The monitoring and control of mosquito breeding is nearly impossible in dense stands (Hellings and Gallagher 1992, in Marks et al1993).

    競爭: VDCR / VNPS (Undated) states that it has become a destructive weed, quickly displacing desirable plant species. Marks et al (1993) state that it is typically the dominant species on areas that it occupies. It often forms dense, virtually monospecific stands.
    New Hampshire (United States (USA)) English 
    其他: The invasions may threaten wildlife because they alter the structure and function of relatively diverse marshes (Roman et al 1984, in Marks et al1993).

    改變林火機制: The invasions also increase the potential for marsh fires during the winter when the above ground portions of the plant die and dry out (Reimer 1973, in Marks et al1993).

    物理干擾: The monitoring and control of mosquito breeding is nearly impossible in dense stands (Hellings and Gallagher 1992, in Marks et al1993).

    競爭: VDCR / VNPS (Undated) states that it has become a destructive weed, quickly displacing desirable plant species. Marks et al (1993) state that it is typically the dominant species on areas that it occupies. It often forms dense, virtually monospecific stands.
    Rhode Island (United States (USA)) English 
    其他: The invasions may threaten wildlife because they alter the structure and function of relatively diverse marshes (Roman et al 1984, in Marks et al1993).

    改變林火機制: The invasions also increase the potential for marsh fires during the winter when the above ground portions of the plant die and dry out (Reimer 1973, in Marks et al1993).

    物理干擾: The monitoring and control of mosquito breeding is nearly impossible in dense stands (Hellings and Gallagher 1992, in Marks et al1993).

    競爭: VDCR / VNPS (Undated) states that it has become a destructive weed, quickly displacing desirable plant species. Marks et al (1993) state that it is typically the dominant species on areas that it occupies. It often forms dense, virtually monospecific stands.
    Vermont (United States (USA)) English 
    其他: The invasions may threaten wildlife because they alter the structure and function of relatively diverse marshes (Roman et al 1984, in Marks et al1993).

    改變林火機制: The invasions also increase the potential for marsh fires during the winter when the above ground portions of the plant die and dry out (Reimer 1973, in Marks et al1993).

    物理干擾: The monitoring and control of mosquito breeding is nearly impossible in dense stands (Hellings and Gallagher 1992, in Marks et al1993).

    競爭: VDCR / VNPS (Undated) states that it has become a destructive weed, quickly displacing desirable plant species. Marks et al (1993) state that it is typically the dominant species on areas that it occupies. It often forms dense, virtually monospecific stands.
    Arizona (United States (USA)) English 
    其他: The invasions may threaten wildlife because they alter the structure and function of relatively diverse marshes (Roman et al 1984, in Marks et al1993).

    改變林火機制: The invasions also increase the potential for marsh fires during the winter when the above ground portions of the plant die and dry out (Reimer 1973, in Marks et al1993).

    物理干擾: The monitoring and control of mosquito breeding is nearly impossible in dense stands (Hellings and Gallagher 1992, in Marks et al1993).

    競爭: VDCR / VNPS (Undated) states that it has become a destructive weed, quickly displacing desirable plant species. Marks et al (1993) state that it is typically the dominant species on areas that it occupies. It often forms dense, virtually monospecific stands.
    California (United States (USA)) English 
    其他: The invasions may threaten wildlife because they alter the structure and function of relatively diverse marshes (Roman et al 1984, in Marks et al1993).

    改變林火機制: The invasions also increase the potential for marsh fires during the winter when the above ground portions of the plant die and dry out (Reimer 1973, in Marks et al1993).

    物理干擾: The monitoring and control of mosquito breeding is nearly impossible in dense stands (Hellings and Gallagher 1992, in Marks et al1993).

    競爭: VDCR / VNPS (Undated) states that it has become a destructive weed, quickly displacing desirable plant species. Marks et al (1993) state that it is typically the dominant species on areas that it occupies. It often forms dense, virtually monospecific stands.
    Colorado (United States (USA)) English 
    其他: The invasions may threaten wildlife because they alter the structure and function of relatively diverse marshes (Roman et al 1984, in Marks et al1993).

    改變林火機制: The invasions also increase the potential for marsh fires during the winter when the above ground portions of the plant die and dry out (Reimer 1973, in Marks et al1993).

    物理干擾: The monitoring and control of mosquito breeding is nearly impossible in dense stands (Hellings and Gallagher 1992, in Marks et al1993).

    競爭: VDCR / VNPS (Undated) states that it has become a destructive weed, quickly displacing desirable plant species. Marks et al (1993) state that it is typically the dominant species on areas that it occupies. It often forms dense, virtually monospecific stands.
    Delaware (United States (USA)) English 
    其他: The invasions may threaten wildlife because they alter the structure and function of relatively diverse marshes (Roman et al 1984, in Marks et al1993).

    改變林火機制: The invasions also increase the potential for marsh fires during the winter when the above ground portions of the plant die and dry out (Reimer 1973, in Marks et al1993).

    物理干擾: The monitoring and control of mosquito breeding is nearly impossible in dense stands (Hellings and Gallagher 1992, in Marks et al1993).

    競爭: VDCR / VNPS (Undated) states that it has become a destructive weed, quickly displacing desirable plant species. Marks et al (1993) state that it is typically the dominant species on areas that it occupies. It often forms dense, virtually monospecific stands.
    Georgia (USA) (United States (USA)) English 
    其他: The invasions may threaten wildlife because they alter the structure and function of relatively diverse marshes (Roman et al 1984, in Marks et al1993).

    改變林火機制: The invasions also increase the potential for marsh fires during the winter when the above ground portions of the plant die and dry out (Reimer 1973, in Marks et al1993).

    物理干擾: The monitoring and control of mosquito breeding is nearly impossible in dense stands (Hellings and Gallagher 1992, in Marks et al1993).

    競爭: VDCR / VNPS (Undated) states that it has become a destructive weed, quickly displacing desirable plant species. Marks et al (1993) state that it is typically the dominant species on areas that it occupies. It often forms dense, virtually monospecific stands.
    Idaho (United States (USA)) English 
    其他: The invasions may threaten wildlife because they alter the structure and function of relatively diverse marshes (Roman et al 1984, in Marks et al1993).

    改變林火機制: The invasions also increase the potential for marsh fires during the winter when the above ground portions of the plant die and dry out (Reimer 1973, in Marks et al1993).

    物理干擾: The monitoring and control of mosquito breeding is nearly impossible in dense stands (Hellings and Gallagher 1992, in Marks et al1993).

    競爭: VDCR / VNPS (Undated) states that it has become a destructive weed, quickly displacing desirable plant species. Marks et al (1993) state that it is typically the dominant species on areas that it occupies. It often forms dense, virtually monospecific stands.
    Illinois (United States (USA)) English 
    其他: The invasions may threaten wildlife because they alter the structure and function of relatively diverse marshes (Roman et al 1984, in Marks et al1993).

    改變林火機制: The invasions also increase the potential for marsh fires during the winter when the above ground portions of the plant die and dry out (Reimer 1973, in Marks et al1993).

    物理干擾: The monitoring and control of mosquito breeding is nearly impossible in dense stands (Hellings and Gallagher 1992, in Marks et al1993).

    競爭: VDCR / VNPS (Undated) states that it has become a destructive weed, quickly displacing desirable plant species. Marks et al (1993) state that it is typically the dominant species on areas that it occupies. It often forms dense, virtually monospecific stands.
    Indiana (United States (USA)) English 
    改變林火機制: The invasions also increase the potential for marsh fires during the winter when the above ground portions of the plant die and dry out (Reimer 1973, in Marks et al1993).

    物理干擾: The monitoring and control of mosquito breeding is nearly impossible in dense stands (Hellings and Gallagher 1992, in Marks et al1993).
    Indiana (United States (USA)) English 
    競爭: VDCR / VNPS (Undated) states that it has become a destructive weed, quickly displacing desirable plant species. Marks et al (1993) state that it is typically the dominant species on areas that it occupies. It often forms dense, virtually monospecific stands.
    Iowa (United States (USA)) English 
    其他: The invasions may threaten wildlife because they alter the structure and function of relatively diverse marshes (Roman et al 1984, in Marks et al1993).

    改變林火機制: The invasions also increase the potential for marsh fires during the winter when the above ground portions of the plant die and dry out (Reimer 1973, in Marks et al1993).

    物理干擾: The monitoring and control of mosquito breeding is nearly impossible in dense stands (Hellings and Gallagher 1992, in Marks et al1993).

    競爭: VDCR / VNPS (Undated) states that it has become a destructive weed, quickly displacing desirable plant species. Marks et al (1993) state that it is typically the dominant species on areas that it occupies. It often forms dense, virtually monospecific stands.
    Kansas (United States (USA)) English 
    其他: The invasions may threaten wildlife because they alter the structure and function of relatively diverse marshes (Roman et al 1984, in Marks et al1993).

    改變林火機制: The invasions also increase the potential for marsh fires during the winter when the above ground portions of the plant die and dry out (Reimer 1973, in Marks et al1993).

    物理干擾: The monitoring and control of mosquito breeding is nearly impossible in dense stands (Hellings and Gallagher 1992, in Marks et al1993).

    競爭: VDCR / VNPS (Undated) states that it has become a destructive weed, quickly displacing desirable plant species. Marks et al (1993) state that it is typically the dominant species on areas that it occupies. It often forms dense, virtually monospecific stands.
    Kentucky (United States (USA)) English 
    其他: The invasions may threaten wildlife because they alter the structure and function of relatively diverse marshes (Roman et al 1984, in Marks et al1993).

    改變林火機制: The invasions also increase the potential for marsh fires during the winter when the above ground portions of the plant die and dry out (Reimer 1973, in Marks et al1993).

    物理干擾: The monitoring and control of mosquito breeding is nearly impossible in dense stands (Hellings and Gallagher 1992, in Marks et al1993).

    競爭: VDCR / VNPS (Undated) states that it has become a destructive weed, quickly displacing desirable plant species. Marks et al (1993) state that it is typically the dominant species on areas that it occupies. It often forms dense, virtually monospecific stands.
    Maryland (USA) (United States (USA)) English 
    其他: The invasions may threaten wildlife because they alter the structure and function of relatively diverse marshes (Roman et al 1984, in Marks et al1993).

    改變林火機制: The invasions also increase the potential for marsh fires during the winter when the above ground portions of the plant die and dry out (Reimer 1973, in Marks et al1993).

    物理干擾: The monitoring and control of mosquito breeding is nearly impossible in dense stands (Hellings and Gallagher 1992, in Marks et al1993).

    競爭: VDCR / VNPS (Undated) states that it has become a destructive weed, quickly displacing desirable plant species. Marks et al (1993) state that it is typically the dominant species on areas that it occupies. It often forms dense, virtually monospecific stands.
    Michigan (United States (USA)) English 
    其他: The invasions may threaten wildlife because they alter the structure and function of relatively diverse marshes (Roman et al 1984, in Marks et al1993).

    改變林火機制: The invasions also increase the potential for marsh fires during the winter when the above ground portions of the plant die and dry out (Reimer 1973, in Marks et al1993).

    物理干擾: The monitoring and control of mosquito breeding is nearly impossible in dense stands (Hellings and Gallagher 1992, in Marks et al1993).

    競爭: VDCR / VNPS (Undated) states that it has become a destructive weed, quickly displacing desirable plant species. Marks et al (1993) state that it is typically the dominant species on areas that it occupies. It often forms dense, virtually monospecific stands.
    Minnesota (United States (USA)) English 
    其他: The invasions may threaten wildlife because they alter the structure and function of relatively diverse marshes (Roman et al 1984, in Marks et al1993).

    改變林火機制: The invasions also increase the potential for marsh fires during the winter when the above ground portions of the plant die and dry out (Reimer 1973, in Marks et al1993).

    物理干擾: The monitoring and control of mosquito breeding is nearly impossible in dense stands (Hellings and Gallagher 1992, in Marks et al1993).

    競爭: VDCR / VNPS (Undated) states that it has become a destructive weed, quickly displacing desirable plant species. Marks et al (1993) state that it is typically the dominant species on areas that it occupies. It often forms dense, virtually monospecific stands.
    Mississippi (United States (USA)) English 
    其他: The invasions may threaten wildlife because they alter the structure and function of relatively diverse marshes (Roman et al 1984, in Marks et al1993).

    改變林火機制: The invasions also increase the potential for marsh fires during the winter when the above ground portions of the plant die and dry out (Reimer 1973, in Marks et al1993).

    物理干擾: The monitoring and control of mosquito breeding is nearly impossible in dense stands (Hellings and Gallagher 1992, in Marks et al1993).

    競爭: VDCR / VNPS (Undated) states that it has become a destructive weed, quickly displacing desirable plant species. Marks et al (1993) state that it is typically the dominant species on areas that it occupies. It often forms dense, virtually monospecific stands.
    Missouri (United States (USA)) English 
    其他: The invasions may threaten wildlife because they alter the structure and function of relatively diverse marshes (Roman et al 1984, in Marks et al1993).

    改變林火機制: The invasions also increase the potential for marsh fires during the winter when the above ground portions of the plant die and dry out (Reimer 1973, in Marks et al1993).

    物理干擾: The monitoring and control of mosquito breeding is nearly impossible in dense stands (Hellings and Gallagher 1992, in Marks et al1993).

    競爭: VDCR / VNPS (Undated) states that it has become a destructive weed, quickly displacing desirable plant species. Marks et al (1993) state that it is typically the dominant species on areas that it occupies. It often forms dense, virtually monospecific stands.
    Montana (United States (USA)) English 
    其他: The invasions may threaten wildlife because they alter the structure and function of relatively diverse marshes (Roman et al 1984, in Marks et al1993).

    改變林火機制: The invasions also increase the potential for marsh fires during the winter when the above ground portions of the plant die and dry out (Reimer 1973, in Marks et al1993).

    物理干擾: The monitoring and control of mosquito breeding is nearly impossible in dense stands (Hellings and Gallagher 1992, in Marks et al1993).

    競爭: VDCR / VNPS (Undated) states that it has become a destructive weed, quickly displacing desirable plant species. Marks et al (1993) state that it is typically the dominant species on areas that it occupies. It often forms dense, virtually monospecific stands.
    Nebraska (United States (USA)) English 
    其他: The invasions may threaten wildlife because they alter the structure and function of relatively diverse marshes (Roman et al 1984, in Marks et al1993).

    改變林火機制: The invasions also increase the potential for marsh fires during the winter when the above ground portions of the plant die and dry out (Reimer 1973, in Marks et al1993).

    物理干擾: The monitoring and control of mosquito breeding is nearly impossible in dense stands (Hellings and Gallagher 1992, in Marks et al1993).

    競爭: VDCR / VNPS (Undated) states that it has become a destructive weed, quickly displacing desirable plant species. Marks et al (1993) state that it is typically the dominant species on areas that it occupies. It often forms dense, virtually monospecific stands.
    Nevada (United States (USA)) English 
    其他: The invasions may threaten wildlife because they alter the structure and function of relatively diverse marshes (Roman et al 1984, in Marks et al1993).

    改變林火機制: The invasions also increase the potential for marsh fires during the winter when the above ground portions of the plant die and dry out (Reimer 1973, in Marks et al1993).

    物理干擾: The monitoring and control of mosquito breeding is nearly impossible in dense stands (Hellings and Gallagher 1992, in Marks et al1993).

    競爭: VDCR / VNPS (Undated) states that it has become a destructive weed, quickly displacing desirable plant species. Marks et al (1993) state that it is typically the dominant species on areas that it occupies. It often forms dense, virtually monospecific stands.
    New Jersey (United States (USA)) English 
    其他: The invasions may threaten wildlife because they alter the structure and function of relatively diverse marshes (Roman et al 1984, in Marks et al1993).

    改變林火機制: The invasions also increase the potential for marsh fires during the winter when the above ground portions of the plant die and dry out (Reimer 1973, in Marks et al1993).

    物理干擾: The monitoring and control of mosquito breeding is nearly impossible in dense stands (Hellings and Gallagher 1992, in Marks et al1993).

    競爭: VDCR / VNPS (Undated) states that it has become a destructive weed, quickly displacing desirable plant species. Marks et al (1993) state that it is typically the dominant species on areas that it occupies. It often forms dense, virtually monospecific stands.
    New Mexico (United States (USA)) English 
    其他: The invasions may threaten wildlife because they alter the structure and function of relatively diverse marshes (Roman et al 1984, in Marks et al1993).

    改變林火機制: The invasions also increase the potential for marsh fires during the winter when the above ground portions of the plant die and dry out (Reimer 1973, in Marks et al1993).

    物理干擾: The monitoring and control of mosquito breeding is nearly impossible in dense stands (Hellings and Gallagher 1992, in Marks et al1993).

    競爭: VDCR / VNPS (Undated) states that it has become a destructive weed, quickly displacing desirable plant species. Marks et al (1993) state that it is typically the dominant species on areas that it occupies. It often forms dense, virtually monospecific stands.
    New York (United States (USA)) English 
    其他: The invasions may threaten wildlife because they alter the structure and function of relatively diverse marshes (Roman et al 1984, in Marks et al1993).

    改變林火機制: The invasions also increase the potential for marsh fires during the winter when the above ground portions of the plant die and dry out (Reimer 1973, in Marks et al1993).

    物理干擾: The monitoring and control of mosquito breeding is nearly impossible in dense stands (Hellings and Gallagher 1992, in Marks et al1993).

    競爭: VDCR / VNPS (Undated) states that it has become a destructive weed, quickly displacing desirable plant species. Marks et al (1993) state that it is typically the dominant species on areas that it occupies. It often forms dense, virtually monospecific stands.
    North Carolina (United States (USA)) English 
    其他: The invasions may threaten wildlife because they alter the structure and function of relatively diverse marshes (Roman et al 1984, in Marks et al1993).

    改變林火機制: The invasions also increase the potential for marsh fires during the winter when the above ground portions of the plant die and dry out (Reimer 1973, in Marks et al1993).

    物理干擾: The monitoring and control of mosquito breeding is nearly impossible in dense stands (Hellings and Gallagher 1992, in Marks et al1993).

    競爭: VDCR / VNPS (Undated) states that it has become a destructive weed, quickly displacing desirable plant species. Marks et al (1993) state that it is typically the dominant species on areas that it occupies. It often forms dense, virtually monospecific stands.
    North Dakota (United States (USA)) English 
    其他: The invasions may threaten wildlife because they alter the structure and function of relatively diverse marshes (Roman et al 1984, in Marks et al1993).

    改變林火機制: The invasions also increase the potential for marsh fires during the winter when the above ground portions of the plant die and dry out (Reimer 1973, in Marks et al1993).

    物理干擾: The monitoring and control of mosquito breeding is nearly impossible in dense stands (Hellings and Gallagher 1992, in Marks et al1993).

    競爭: VDCR / VNPS (Undated) states that it has become a destructive weed, quickly displacing desirable plant species. Marks et al (1993) state that it is typically the dominant species on areas that it occupies. It often forms dense, virtually monospecific stands.
    Ohio (United States (USA)) English 
    其他: The invasions may threaten wildlife because they alter the structure and function of relatively diverse marshes (Roman et al 1984, in Marks et al1993).

    改變林火機制: The invasions also increase the potential for marsh fires during the winter when the above ground portions of the plant die and dry out (Reimer 1973, in Marks et al1993).

    物理干擾: The monitoring and control of mosquito breeding is nearly impossible in dense stands (Hellings and Gallagher 1992, in Marks et al1993).

    競爭: VDCR / VNPS (Undated) states that it has become a destructive weed, quickly displacing desirable plant species. Marks et al (1993) state that it is typically the dominant species on areas that it occupies. It often forms dense, virtually monospecific stands.
    Oklahoma (United States (USA)) English 
    其他: The invasions may threaten wildlife because they alter the structure and function of relatively diverse marshes (Roman et al 1984, in Marks et al1993).

    改變林火機制: The invasions also increase the potential for marsh fires during the winter when the above ground portions of the plant die and dry out (Reimer 1973, in Marks et al1993).

    物理干擾: The monitoring and control of mosquito breeding is nearly impossible in dense stands (Hellings and Gallagher 1992, in Marks et al1993).

    競爭: VDCR / VNPS (Undated) states that it has become a destructive weed, quickly displacing desirable plant species. Marks et al (1993) state that it is typically the dominant species on areas that it occupies. It often forms dense, virtually monospecific stands.
    Oregon (United States (USA)) English 
    其他: The invasions may threaten wildlife because they alter the structure and function of relatively diverse marshes (Roman et al 1984, in Marks et al1993).

    改變林火機制: The invasions also increase the potential for marsh fires during the winter when the above ground portions of the plant die and dry out (Reimer 1973, in Marks et al1993).

    物理干擾: The monitoring and control of mosquito breeding is nearly impossible in dense stands (Hellings and Gallagher 1992, in Marks et al1993).

    競爭: VDCR / VNPS (Undated) states that it has become a destructive weed, quickly displacing desirable plant species. Marks et al (1993) state that it is typically the dominant species on areas that it occupies. It often forms dense, virtually monospecific stands.
    Pennsylvania (United States (USA)) English 
    其他: The invasions may threaten wildlife because they alter the structure and function of relatively diverse marshes (Roman et al 1984, in Marks et al1993).

    改變林火機制: The invasions also increase the potential for marsh fires during the winter when the above ground portions of the plant die and dry out (Reimer 1973, in Marks et al1993).

    物理干擾: The monitoring and control of mosquito breeding is nearly impossible in dense stands (Hellings and Gallagher 1992, in Marks et al1993).

    競爭: VDCR / VNPS (Undated) states that it has become a destructive weed, quickly displacing desirable plant species. Marks et al (1993) state that it is typically the dominant species on areas that it occupies. It often forms dense, virtually monospecific stands.
    South Carolina (United States (USA)) English 
    其他: The invasions may threaten wildlife because they alter the structure and function of relatively diverse marshes (Roman et al 1984, in Marks et al1993).

    改變林火機制: The invasions also increase the potential for marsh fires during the winter when the above ground portions of the plant die and dry out (Reimer 1973, in Marks et al1993).

    物理干擾: The monitoring and control of mosquito breeding is nearly impossible in dense stands (Hellings and Gallagher 1992, in Marks et al1993).

    競爭: VDCR / VNPS (Undated) states that it has become a destructive weed, quickly displacing desirable plant species. Marks et al (1993) state that it is typically the dominant species on areas that it occupies. It often forms dense, virtually monospecific stands.
    South Dakota (United States (USA)) English 
    其他: The invasions may threaten wildlife because they alter the structure and function of relatively diverse marshes (Roman et al 1984, in Marks et al1993).

    改變林火機制: The invasions also increase the potential for marsh fires during the winter when the above ground portions of the plant die and dry out (Reimer 1973, in Marks et al1993).

    物理干擾: The monitoring and control of mosquito breeding is nearly impossible in dense stands (Hellings and Gallagher 1992, in Marks et al1993).

    競爭: VDCR / VNPS (Undated) states that it has become a destructive weed, quickly displacing desirable plant species. Marks et al (1993) state that it is typically the dominant species on areas that it occupies. It often forms dense, virtually monospecific stands.
    Tennessee (United States (USA)) English 
    其他: The invasions may threaten wildlife because they alter the structure and function of relatively diverse marshes (Roman et al 1984, in Marks et al1993).

    改變林火機制: The invasions also increase the potential for marsh fires during the winter when the above ground portions of the plant die and dry out (Reimer 1973, in Marks et al1993).

    物理干擾: The monitoring and control of mosquito breeding is nearly impossible in dense stands (Hellings and Gallagher 1992, in Marks et al1993).

    競爭: VDCR / VNPS (Undated) states that it has become a destructive weed, quickly displacing desirable plant species. Marks et al (1993) state that it is typically the dominant species on areas that it occupies. It often forms dense, virtually monospecific stands.
    Texas (United States (USA)) English 
    其他: The invasions may threaten wildlife because they alter the structure and function of relatively diverse marshes (Roman et al 1984, in Marks et al1993).

    改變林火機制: The invasions also increase the potential for marsh fires during the winter when the above ground portions of the plant die and dry out (Reimer 1973, in Marks et al1993).

    物理干擾: The monitoring and control of mosquito breeding is nearly impossible in dense stands (Hellings and Gallagher 1992, in Marks et al1993).

    競爭: VDCR / VNPS (Undated) states that it has become a destructive weed, quickly displacing desirable plant species. Marks et al (1993) state that it is typically the dominant species on areas that it occupies. It often forms dense, virtually monospecific stands.
    Utah (United States (USA)) English 
    其他: The invasions may threaten wildlife because they alter the structure and function of relatively diverse marshes (Roman et al 1984, in Marks et al1993).

    改變林火機制: The invasions also increase the potential for marsh fires during the winter when the above ground portions of the plant die and dry out (Reimer 1973, in Marks et al1993).

    物理干擾: The monitoring and control of mosquito breeding is nearly impossible in dense stands (Hellings and Gallagher 1992, in Marks et al1993).

    競爭: VDCR / VNPS (Undated) states that it has become a destructive weed, quickly displacing desirable plant species. Marks et al (1993) state that it is typically the dominant species on areas that it occupies. It often forms dense, virtually monospecific stands.
    Virginia (United States (USA)) English 
    其他: The invasions may threaten wildlife because they alter the structure and function of relatively diverse marshes (Roman et al 1984, in Marks et al1993).

    改變林火機制: The invasions also increase the potential for marsh fires during the winter when the above ground portions of the plant die and dry out (Reimer 1973, in Marks et al1993).

    物理干擾: The monitoring and control of mosquito breeding is nearly impossible in dense stands (Hellings and Gallagher 1992, in Marks et al1993).

    競爭: VDCR / VNPS (Undated) states that it has become a destructive weed, quickly displacing desirable plant species. Marks et al (1993) state that it is typically the dominant species on areas that it occupies. It often forms dense, virtually monospecific stands.
    West Virginia (United States (USA)) English 
    其他: The invasions may threaten wildlife because they alter the structure and function of relatively diverse marshes (Roman et al 1984, in Marks et al1993).

    改變林火機制: The invasions also increase the potential for marsh fires during the winter when the above ground portions of the plant die and dry out (Reimer 1973, in Marks et al1993).

    物理干擾: The monitoring and control of mosquito breeding is nearly impossible in dense stands (Hellings and Gallagher 1992, in Marks et al1993).

    競爭: VDCR / VNPS (Undated) states that it has become a destructive weed, quickly displacing desirable plant species. Marks et al (1993) state that it is typically the dominant species on areas that it occupies. It often forms dense, virtually monospecific stands.
    Wisconsin (United States (USA)) English 
    其他: The invasions may threaten wildlife because they alter the structure and function of relatively diverse marshes (Roman et al 1984, in Marks et al1993).

    改變林火機制: The invasions also increase the potential for marsh fires during the winter when the above ground portions of the plant die and dry out (Reimer 1973, in Marks et al1993).

    物理干擾: The monitoring and control of mosquito breeding is nearly impossible in dense stands (Hellings and Gallagher 1992, in Marks et al1993).

    競爭: VDCR / VNPS (Undated) states that it has become a destructive weed, quickly displacing desirable plant species. Marks et al (1993) state that it is typically the dominant species on areas that it occupies. It often forms dense, virtually monospecific stands.
    Wyoming (United States (USA)) English 
    其他: The invasions may threaten wildlife because they alter the structure and function of relatively diverse marshes (Roman et al 1984, in Marks et al1993).

    改變林火機制: The invasions also increase the potential for marsh fires during the winter when the above ground portions of the plant die and dry out (Reimer 1973, in Marks et al1993).

    物理干擾: The monitoring and control of mosquito breeding is nearly impossible in dense stands (Hellings and Gallagher 1992, in Marks et al1993).

    競爭: VDCR / VNPS (Undated) states that it has become a destructive weed, quickly displacing desirable plant species. Marks et al (1993) state that it is typically the dominant species on areas that it occupies. It often forms dense, virtually monospecific stands.



ISSG Landcare Research NBII IUCN University of Auckland