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   Phragmites australis (草) English   
生态 分布 管理 影响 参考数据 联系


         一般影响

    Marks等(1993),许多国家将认为芦苇“良性”,很少或根本不会对其他物种构成威胁,应让它维持不变。稳定族群可能很难与外来族群区分。芦苇蔓延出现在任何时间和地点,都会是一个问题,会使其它物种社群减少。由于道路,水围塘,海堤和潮闸对潮汐施加限制,许多大西洋沿岸湿地系统已被入侵。这些入侵可能威胁野生动物,因为芦苇改变了大米草沼泽相当多样化的结构和功能(罗马等。1984,Mark等人, 1993)。在美国许多东岸的鱼类和野生生物避难所,这是一个麻烦问题。这些入侵的芦苇也可能会增加湿地发生林火的可能性,尤其是当冬季时植物地上的部分死亡,干枯(里默1973,in Marks等人, 1993)。密集聚集的红翅乌鸦(Agelaius phoeniceus)会优先选择在芦苇植株中筑巢,增加附近飞机发生事故的机会。几乎不可能在茂密的芦苇植群,监测和控制蚊子滋生(埃林斯和加拉格尔 1992,Marks等人, 1993)。此外,入侵的芦苇还会有不良的美学影响。



         地点特有的影响:
    Connecticut (United States (USA)) English 
    其它: The invasions may threaten wildlife because they alter the structure and function of relatively diverse marshes (Roman et al 1984, in Marks et al1993).

    改变林火机制: The invasions also increase the potential for marsh fires during the winter when the above ground portions of the plant die and dry out (Reimer 1973, in Marks et al1993).

    物理干扰: The monitoring and control of mosquito breeding is nearly impossible in dense stands (Hellings and Gallagher 1992, in Marks et al1993).

    竞争: VDCR / VNPS (Undated) states that it has become a destructive weed, quickly displacing desirable plant species. Marks et al (1993) state that it is typically the dominant species on areas that it occupies. It often forms dense, virtually monospecific stands.
    Maine (United States (USA)) English 
    其它: The invasions may threaten wildlife because they alter the structure and function of relatively diverse marshes (Roman et al 1984, in Marks et al1993).

    改变林火机制: The invasions also increase the potential for marsh fires during the winter when the above ground portions of the plant die and dry out (Reimer 1973, in Marks et al1993).

    物理干扰: The monitoring and control of mosquito breeding is nearly impossible in dense stands (Hellings and Gallagher 1992, in Marks et al1993).

    竞争: VDCR / VNPS (Undated) states that it has become a destructive weed, quickly displacing desirable plant species. Marks et al (1993) state that it is typically the dominant species on areas that it occupies. It often forms dense, virtually monospecific stands.
    Massachusetts (United States (USA)) English 
    其它: The invasions may threaten wildlife because they alter the structure and function of relatively diverse marshes (Roman et al 1984, in Marks et al1993).

    改变林火机制: The invasions also increase the potential for marsh fires during the winter when the above ground portions of the plant die and dry out (Reimer 1973, in Marks et al1993).

    物理干扰: The monitoring and control of mosquito breeding is nearly impossible in dense stands (Hellings and Gallagher 1992, in Marks et al1993).

    竞争: VDCR / VNPS (Undated) states that it has become a destructive weed, quickly displacing desirable plant species. Marks et al (1993) state that it is typically the dominant species on areas that it occupies. It often forms dense, virtually monospecific stands.
    New Hampshire (United States (USA)) English 
    其它: The invasions may threaten wildlife because they alter the structure and function of relatively diverse marshes (Roman et al 1984, in Marks et al1993).

    改变林火机制: The invasions also increase the potential for marsh fires during the winter when the above ground portions of the plant die and dry out (Reimer 1973, in Marks et al1993).

    物理干扰: The monitoring and control of mosquito breeding is nearly impossible in dense stands (Hellings and Gallagher 1992, in Marks et al1993).

    竞争: VDCR / VNPS (Undated) states that it has become a destructive weed, quickly displacing desirable plant species. Marks et al (1993) state that it is typically the dominant species on areas that it occupies. It often forms dense, virtually monospecific stands.
    Rhode Island (United States (USA)) English 
    其它: The invasions may threaten wildlife because they alter the structure and function of relatively diverse marshes (Roman et al 1984, in Marks et al1993).

    改变林火机制: The invasions also increase the potential for marsh fires during the winter when the above ground portions of the plant die and dry out (Reimer 1973, in Marks et al1993).

    物理干扰: The monitoring and control of mosquito breeding is nearly impossible in dense stands (Hellings and Gallagher 1992, in Marks et al1993).

    竞争: VDCR / VNPS (Undated) states that it has become a destructive weed, quickly displacing desirable plant species. Marks et al (1993) state that it is typically the dominant species on areas that it occupies. It often forms dense, virtually monospecific stands.
    Vermont (United States (USA)) English 
    其它: The invasions may threaten wildlife because they alter the structure and function of relatively diverse marshes (Roman et al 1984, in Marks et al1993).

    改变林火机制: The invasions also increase the potential for marsh fires during the winter when the above ground portions of the plant die and dry out (Reimer 1973, in Marks et al1993).

    物理干扰: The monitoring and control of mosquito breeding is nearly impossible in dense stands (Hellings and Gallagher 1992, in Marks et al1993).

    竞争: VDCR / VNPS (Undated) states that it has become a destructive weed, quickly displacing desirable plant species. Marks et al (1993) state that it is typically the dominant species on areas that it occupies. It often forms dense, virtually monospecific stands.
    Arizona (United States (USA)) English 
    其它: The invasions may threaten wildlife because they alter the structure and function of relatively diverse marshes (Roman et al 1984, in Marks et al1993).

    改变林火机制: The invasions also increase the potential for marsh fires during the winter when the above ground portions of the plant die and dry out (Reimer 1973, in Marks et al1993).

    物理干扰: The monitoring and control of mosquito breeding is nearly impossible in dense stands (Hellings and Gallagher 1992, in Marks et al1993).

    竞争: VDCR / VNPS (Undated) states that it has become a destructive weed, quickly displacing desirable plant species. Marks et al (1993) state that it is typically the dominant species on areas that it occupies. It often forms dense, virtually monospecific stands.
    California (United States (USA)) English 
    其它: The invasions may threaten wildlife because they alter the structure and function of relatively diverse marshes (Roman et al 1984, in Marks et al1993).

    改变林火机制: The invasions also increase the potential for marsh fires during the winter when the above ground portions of the plant die and dry out (Reimer 1973, in Marks et al1993).

    物理干扰: The monitoring and control of mosquito breeding is nearly impossible in dense stands (Hellings and Gallagher 1992, in Marks et al1993).

    竞争: VDCR / VNPS (Undated) states that it has become a destructive weed, quickly displacing desirable plant species. Marks et al (1993) state that it is typically the dominant species on areas that it occupies. It often forms dense, virtually monospecific stands.
    Colorado (United States (USA)) English 
    其它: The invasions may threaten wildlife because they alter the structure and function of relatively diverse marshes (Roman et al 1984, in Marks et al1993).

    改变林火机制: The invasions also increase the potential for marsh fires during the winter when the above ground portions of the plant die and dry out (Reimer 1973, in Marks et al1993).

    物理干扰: The monitoring and control of mosquito breeding is nearly impossible in dense stands (Hellings and Gallagher 1992, in Marks et al1993).

    竞争: VDCR / VNPS (Undated) states that it has become a destructive weed, quickly displacing desirable plant species. Marks et al (1993) state that it is typically the dominant species on areas that it occupies. It often forms dense, virtually monospecific stands.
    Delaware (United States (USA)) English 
    其它: The invasions may threaten wildlife because they alter the structure and function of relatively diverse marshes (Roman et al 1984, in Marks et al1993).

    改变林火机制: The invasions also increase the potential for marsh fires during the winter when the above ground portions of the plant die and dry out (Reimer 1973, in Marks et al1993).

    物理干扰: The monitoring and control of mosquito breeding is nearly impossible in dense stands (Hellings and Gallagher 1992, in Marks et al1993).

    竞争: VDCR / VNPS (Undated) states that it has become a destructive weed, quickly displacing desirable plant species. Marks et al (1993) state that it is typically the dominant species on areas that it occupies. It often forms dense, virtually monospecific stands.
    Georgia (USA) (United States (USA)) English 
    其它: The invasions may threaten wildlife because they alter the structure and function of relatively diverse marshes (Roman et al 1984, in Marks et al1993).

    改变林火机制: The invasions also increase the potential for marsh fires during the winter when the above ground portions of the plant die and dry out (Reimer 1973, in Marks et al1993).

    物理干扰: The monitoring and control of mosquito breeding is nearly impossible in dense stands (Hellings and Gallagher 1992, in Marks et al1993).

    竞争: VDCR / VNPS (Undated) states that it has become a destructive weed, quickly displacing desirable plant species. Marks et al (1993) state that it is typically the dominant species on areas that it occupies. It often forms dense, virtually monospecific stands.
    Idaho (United States (USA)) English 
    其它: The invasions may threaten wildlife because they alter the structure and function of relatively diverse marshes (Roman et al 1984, in Marks et al1993).

    改变林火机制: The invasions also increase the potential for marsh fires during the winter when the above ground portions of the plant die and dry out (Reimer 1973, in Marks et al1993).

    物理干扰: The monitoring and control of mosquito breeding is nearly impossible in dense stands (Hellings and Gallagher 1992, in Marks et al1993).

    竞争: VDCR / VNPS (Undated) states that it has become a destructive weed, quickly displacing desirable plant species. Marks et al (1993) state that it is typically the dominant species on areas that it occupies. It often forms dense, virtually monospecific stands.
    Illinois (United States (USA)) English 
    其它: The invasions may threaten wildlife because they alter the structure and function of relatively diverse marshes (Roman et al 1984, in Marks et al1993).

    改变林火机制: The invasions also increase the potential for marsh fires during the winter when the above ground portions of the plant die and dry out (Reimer 1973, in Marks et al1993).

    物理干扰: The monitoring and control of mosquito breeding is nearly impossible in dense stands (Hellings and Gallagher 1992, in Marks et al1993).

    竞争: VDCR / VNPS (Undated) states that it has become a destructive weed, quickly displacing desirable plant species. Marks et al (1993) state that it is typically the dominant species on areas that it occupies. It often forms dense, virtually monospecific stands.
    Indiana (United States (USA)) English 
    改变林火机制: The invasions also increase the potential for marsh fires during the winter when the above ground portions of the plant die and dry out (Reimer 1973, in Marks et al1993).

    物理干扰: The monitoring and control of mosquito breeding is nearly impossible in dense stands (Hellings and Gallagher 1992, in Marks et al1993).
    Indiana (United States (USA)) English 
    竞争: VDCR / VNPS (Undated) states that it has become a destructive weed, quickly displacing desirable plant species. Marks et al (1993) state that it is typically the dominant species on areas that it occupies. It often forms dense, virtually monospecific stands.
    Iowa (United States (USA)) English 
    其它: The invasions may threaten wildlife because they alter the structure and function of relatively diverse marshes (Roman et al 1984, in Marks et al1993).

    改变林火机制: The invasions also increase the potential for marsh fires during the winter when the above ground portions of the plant die and dry out (Reimer 1973, in Marks et al1993).

    物理干扰: The monitoring and control of mosquito breeding is nearly impossible in dense stands (Hellings and Gallagher 1992, in Marks et al1993).

    竞争: VDCR / VNPS (Undated) states that it has become a destructive weed, quickly displacing desirable plant species. Marks et al (1993) state that it is typically the dominant species on areas that it occupies. It often forms dense, virtually monospecific stands.
    Kansas (United States (USA)) English 
    其它: The invasions may threaten wildlife because they alter the structure and function of relatively diverse marshes (Roman et al 1984, in Marks et al1993).

    改变林火机制: The invasions also increase the potential for marsh fires during the winter when the above ground portions of the plant die and dry out (Reimer 1973, in Marks et al1993).

    物理干扰: The monitoring and control of mosquito breeding is nearly impossible in dense stands (Hellings and Gallagher 1992, in Marks et al1993).

    竞争: VDCR / VNPS (Undated) states that it has become a destructive weed, quickly displacing desirable plant species. Marks et al (1993) state that it is typically the dominant species on areas that it occupies. It often forms dense, virtually monospecific stands.
    Kentucky (United States (USA)) English 
    其它: The invasions may threaten wildlife because they alter the structure and function of relatively diverse marshes (Roman et al 1984, in Marks et al1993).

    改变林火机制: The invasions also increase the potential for marsh fires during the winter when the above ground portions of the plant die and dry out (Reimer 1973, in Marks et al1993).

    物理干扰: The monitoring and control of mosquito breeding is nearly impossible in dense stands (Hellings and Gallagher 1992, in Marks et al1993).

    竞争: VDCR / VNPS (Undated) states that it has become a destructive weed, quickly displacing desirable plant species. Marks et al (1993) state that it is typically the dominant species on areas that it occupies. It often forms dense, virtually monospecific stands.
    Maryland (USA) (United States (USA)) English 
    其它: The invasions may threaten wildlife because they alter the structure and function of relatively diverse marshes (Roman et al 1984, in Marks et al1993).

    改变林火机制: The invasions also increase the potential for marsh fires during the winter when the above ground portions of the plant die and dry out (Reimer 1973, in Marks et al1993).

    物理干扰: The monitoring and control of mosquito breeding is nearly impossible in dense stands (Hellings and Gallagher 1992, in Marks et al1993).

    竞争: VDCR / VNPS (Undated) states that it has become a destructive weed, quickly displacing desirable plant species. Marks et al (1993) state that it is typically the dominant species on areas that it occupies. It often forms dense, virtually monospecific stands.
    Michigan (United States (USA)) English 
    其它: The invasions may threaten wildlife because they alter the structure and function of relatively diverse marshes (Roman et al 1984, in Marks et al1993).

    改变林火机制: The invasions also increase the potential for marsh fires during the winter when the above ground portions of the plant die and dry out (Reimer 1973, in Marks et al1993).

    物理干扰: The monitoring and control of mosquito breeding is nearly impossible in dense stands (Hellings and Gallagher 1992, in Marks et al1993).

    竞争: VDCR / VNPS (Undated) states that it has become a destructive weed, quickly displacing desirable plant species. Marks et al (1993) state that it is typically the dominant species on areas that it occupies. It often forms dense, virtually monospecific stands.
    Minnesota (United States (USA)) English 
    其它: The invasions may threaten wildlife because they alter the structure and function of relatively diverse marshes (Roman et al 1984, in Marks et al1993).

    改变林火机制: The invasions also increase the potential for marsh fires during the winter when the above ground portions of the plant die and dry out (Reimer 1973, in Marks et al1993).

    物理干扰: The monitoring and control of mosquito breeding is nearly impossible in dense stands (Hellings and Gallagher 1992, in Marks et al1993).

    竞争: VDCR / VNPS (Undated) states that it has become a destructive weed, quickly displacing desirable plant species. Marks et al (1993) state that it is typically the dominant species on areas that it occupies. It often forms dense, virtually monospecific stands.
    Mississippi (United States (USA)) English 
    其它: The invasions may threaten wildlife because they alter the structure and function of relatively diverse marshes (Roman et al 1984, in Marks et al1993).

    改变林火机制: The invasions also increase the potential for marsh fires during the winter when the above ground portions of the plant die and dry out (Reimer 1973, in Marks et al1993).

    物理干扰: The monitoring and control of mosquito breeding is nearly impossible in dense stands (Hellings and Gallagher 1992, in Marks et al1993).

    竞争: VDCR / VNPS (Undated) states that it has become a destructive weed, quickly displacing desirable plant species. Marks et al (1993) state that it is typically the dominant species on areas that it occupies. It often forms dense, virtually monospecific stands.
    Missouri (United States (USA)) English 
    其它: The invasions may threaten wildlife because they alter the structure and function of relatively diverse marshes (Roman et al 1984, in Marks et al1993).

    改变林火机制: The invasions also increase the potential for marsh fires during the winter when the above ground portions of the plant die and dry out (Reimer 1973, in Marks et al1993).

    物理干扰: The monitoring and control of mosquito breeding is nearly impossible in dense stands (Hellings and Gallagher 1992, in Marks et al1993).

    竞争: VDCR / VNPS (Undated) states that it has become a destructive weed, quickly displacing desirable plant species. Marks et al (1993) state that it is typically the dominant species on areas that it occupies. It often forms dense, virtually monospecific stands.
    Montana (United States (USA)) English 
    其它: The invasions may threaten wildlife because they alter the structure and function of relatively diverse marshes (Roman et al 1984, in Marks et al1993).

    改变林火机制: The invasions also increase the potential for marsh fires during the winter when the above ground portions of the plant die and dry out (Reimer 1973, in Marks et al1993).

    物理干扰: The monitoring and control of mosquito breeding is nearly impossible in dense stands (Hellings and Gallagher 1992, in Marks et al1993).

    竞争: VDCR / VNPS (Undated) states that it has become a destructive weed, quickly displacing desirable plant species. Marks et al (1993) state that it is typically the dominant species on areas that it occupies. It often forms dense, virtually monospecific stands.
    Nebraska (United States (USA)) English 
    其它: The invasions may threaten wildlife because they alter the structure and function of relatively diverse marshes (Roman et al 1984, in Marks et al1993).

    改变林火机制: The invasions also increase the potential for marsh fires during the winter when the above ground portions of the plant die and dry out (Reimer 1973, in Marks et al1993).

    物理干扰: The monitoring and control of mosquito breeding is nearly impossible in dense stands (Hellings and Gallagher 1992, in Marks et al1993).

    竞争: VDCR / VNPS (Undated) states that it has become a destructive weed, quickly displacing desirable plant species. Marks et al (1993) state that it is typically the dominant species on areas that it occupies. It often forms dense, virtually monospecific stands.
    Nevada (United States (USA)) English 
    其它: The invasions may threaten wildlife because they alter the structure and function of relatively diverse marshes (Roman et al 1984, in Marks et al1993).

    改变林火机制: The invasions also increase the potential for marsh fires during the winter when the above ground portions of the plant die and dry out (Reimer 1973, in Marks et al1993).

    物理干扰: The monitoring and control of mosquito breeding is nearly impossible in dense stands (Hellings and Gallagher 1992, in Marks et al1993).

    竞争: VDCR / VNPS (Undated) states that it has become a destructive weed, quickly displacing desirable plant species. Marks et al (1993) state that it is typically the dominant species on areas that it occupies. It often forms dense, virtually monospecific stands.
    New Jersey (United States (USA)) English 
    其它: The invasions may threaten wildlife because they alter the structure and function of relatively diverse marshes (Roman et al 1984, in Marks et al1993).

    改变林火机制: The invasions also increase the potential for marsh fires during the winter when the above ground portions of the plant die and dry out (Reimer 1973, in Marks et al1993).

    物理干扰: The monitoring and control of mosquito breeding is nearly impossible in dense stands (Hellings and Gallagher 1992, in Marks et al1993).

    竞争: VDCR / VNPS (Undated) states that it has become a destructive weed, quickly displacing desirable plant species. Marks et al (1993) state that it is typically the dominant species on areas that it occupies. It often forms dense, virtually monospecific stands.
    New Mexico (United States (USA)) English 
    其它: The invasions may threaten wildlife because they alter the structure and function of relatively diverse marshes (Roman et al 1984, in Marks et al1993).

    改变林火机制: The invasions also increase the potential for marsh fires during the winter when the above ground portions of the plant die and dry out (Reimer 1973, in Marks et al1993).

    物理干扰: The monitoring and control of mosquito breeding is nearly impossible in dense stands (Hellings and Gallagher 1992, in Marks et al1993).

    竞争: VDCR / VNPS (Undated) states that it has become a destructive weed, quickly displacing desirable plant species. Marks et al (1993) state that it is typically the dominant species on areas that it occupies. It often forms dense, virtually monospecific stands.
    New York (United States (USA)) English 
    其它: The invasions may threaten wildlife because they alter the structure and function of relatively diverse marshes (Roman et al 1984, in Marks et al1993).

    改变林火机制: The invasions also increase the potential for marsh fires during the winter when the above ground portions of the plant die and dry out (Reimer 1973, in Marks et al1993).

    物理干扰: The monitoring and control of mosquito breeding is nearly impossible in dense stands (Hellings and Gallagher 1992, in Marks et al1993).

    竞争: VDCR / VNPS (Undated) states that it has become a destructive weed, quickly displacing desirable plant species. Marks et al (1993) state that it is typically the dominant species on areas that it occupies. It often forms dense, virtually monospecific stands.
    North Carolina (United States (USA)) English 
    其它: The invasions may threaten wildlife because they alter the structure and function of relatively diverse marshes (Roman et al 1984, in Marks et al1993).

    改变林火机制: The invasions also increase the potential for marsh fires during the winter when the above ground portions of the plant die and dry out (Reimer 1973, in Marks et al1993).

    物理干扰: The monitoring and control of mosquito breeding is nearly impossible in dense stands (Hellings and Gallagher 1992, in Marks et al1993).

    竞争: VDCR / VNPS (Undated) states that it has become a destructive weed, quickly displacing desirable plant species. Marks et al (1993) state that it is typically the dominant species on areas that it occupies. It often forms dense, virtually monospecific stands.
    North Dakota (United States (USA)) English 
    其它: The invasions may threaten wildlife because they alter the structure and function of relatively diverse marshes (Roman et al 1984, in Marks et al1993).

    改变林火机制: The invasions also increase the potential for marsh fires during the winter when the above ground portions of the plant die and dry out (Reimer 1973, in Marks et al1993).

    物理干扰: The monitoring and control of mosquito breeding is nearly impossible in dense stands (Hellings and Gallagher 1992, in Marks et al1993).

    竞争: VDCR / VNPS (Undated) states that it has become a destructive weed, quickly displacing desirable plant species. Marks et al (1993) state that it is typically the dominant species on areas that it occupies. It often forms dense, virtually monospecific stands.
    Ohio (United States (USA)) English 
    其它: The invasions may threaten wildlife because they alter the structure and function of relatively diverse marshes (Roman et al 1984, in Marks et al1993).

    改变林火机制: The invasions also increase the potential for marsh fires during the winter when the above ground portions of the plant die and dry out (Reimer 1973, in Marks et al1993).

    物理干扰: The monitoring and control of mosquito breeding is nearly impossible in dense stands (Hellings and Gallagher 1992, in Marks et al1993).

    竞争: VDCR / VNPS (Undated) states that it has become a destructive weed, quickly displacing desirable plant species. Marks et al (1993) state that it is typically the dominant species on areas that it occupies. It often forms dense, virtually monospecific stands.
    Oklahoma (United States (USA)) English 
    其它: The invasions may threaten wildlife because they alter the structure and function of relatively diverse marshes (Roman et al 1984, in Marks et al1993).

    改变林火机制: The invasions also increase the potential for marsh fires during the winter when the above ground portions of the plant die and dry out (Reimer 1973, in Marks et al1993).

    物理干扰: The monitoring and control of mosquito breeding is nearly impossible in dense stands (Hellings and Gallagher 1992, in Marks et al1993).

    竞争: VDCR / VNPS (Undated) states that it has become a destructive weed, quickly displacing desirable plant species. Marks et al (1993) state that it is typically the dominant species on areas that it occupies. It often forms dense, virtually monospecific stands.
    Oregon (United States (USA)) English 
    其它: The invasions may threaten wildlife because they alter the structure and function of relatively diverse marshes (Roman et al 1984, in Marks et al1993).

    改变林火机制: The invasions also increase the potential for marsh fires during the winter when the above ground portions of the plant die and dry out (Reimer 1973, in Marks et al1993).

    物理干扰: The monitoring and control of mosquito breeding is nearly impossible in dense stands (Hellings and Gallagher 1992, in Marks et al1993).

    竞争: VDCR / VNPS (Undated) states that it has become a destructive weed, quickly displacing desirable plant species. Marks et al (1993) state that it is typically the dominant species on areas that it occupies. It often forms dense, virtually monospecific stands.
    Pennsylvania (United States (USA)) English 
    其它: The invasions may threaten wildlife because they alter the structure and function of relatively diverse marshes (Roman et al 1984, in Marks et al1993).

    改变林火机制: The invasions also increase the potential for marsh fires during the winter when the above ground portions of the plant die and dry out (Reimer 1973, in Marks et al1993).

    物理干扰: The monitoring and control of mosquito breeding is nearly impossible in dense stands (Hellings and Gallagher 1992, in Marks et al1993).

    竞争: VDCR / VNPS (Undated) states that it has become a destructive weed, quickly displacing desirable plant species. Marks et al (1993) state that it is typically the dominant species on areas that it occupies. It often forms dense, virtually monospecific stands.
    South Carolina (United States (USA)) English 
    其它: The invasions may threaten wildlife because they alter the structure and function of relatively diverse marshes (Roman et al 1984, in Marks et al1993).

    改变林火机制: The invasions also increase the potential for marsh fires during the winter when the above ground portions of the plant die and dry out (Reimer 1973, in Marks et al1993).

    物理干扰: The monitoring and control of mosquito breeding is nearly impossible in dense stands (Hellings and Gallagher 1992, in Marks et al1993).

    竞争: VDCR / VNPS (Undated) states that it has become a destructive weed, quickly displacing desirable plant species. Marks et al (1993) state that it is typically the dominant species on areas that it occupies. It often forms dense, virtually monospecific stands.
    South Dakota (United States (USA)) English 
    其它: The invasions may threaten wildlife because they alter the structure and function of relatively diverse marshes (Roman et al 1984, in Marks et al1993).

    改变林火机制: The invasions also increase the potential for marsh fires during the winter when the above ground portions of the plant die and dry out (Reimer 1973, in Marks et al1993).

    物理干扰: The monitoring and control of mosquito breeding is nearly impossible in dense stands (Hellings and Gallagher 1992, in Marks et al1993).

    竞争: VDCR / VNPS (Undated) states that it has become a destructive weed, quickly displacing desirable plant species. Marks et al (1993) state that it is typically the dominant species on areas that it occupies. It often forms dense, virtually monospecific stands.
    Tennessee (United States (USA)) English 
    其它: The invasions may threaten wildlife because they alter the structure and function of relatively diverse marshes (Roman et al 1984, in Marks et al1993).

    改变林火机制: The invasions also increase the potential for marsh fires during the winter when the above ground portions of the plant die and dry out (Reimer 1973, in Marks et al1993).

    物理干扰: The monitoring and control of mosquito breeding is nearly impossible in dense stands (Hellings and Gallagher 1992, in Marks et al1993).

    竞争: VDCR / VNPS (Undated) states that it has become a destructive weed, quickly displacing desirable plant species. Marks et al (1993) state that it is typically the dominant species on areas that it occupies. It often forms dense, virtually monospecific stands.
    Texas (United States (USA)) English 
    其它: The invasions may threaten wildlife because they alter the structure and function of relatively diverse marshes (Roman et al 1984, in Marks et al1993).

    改变林火机制: The invasions also increase the potential for marsh fires during the winter when the above ground portions of the plant die and dry out (Reimer 1973, in Marks et al1993).

    物理干扰: The monitoring and control of mosquito breeding is nearly impossible in dense stands (Hellings and Gallagher 1992, in Marks et al1993).

    竞争: VDCR / VNPS (Undated) states that it has become a destructive weed, quickly displacing desirable plant species. Marks et al (1993) state that it is typically the dominant species on areas that it occupies. It often forms dense, virtually monospecific stands.
    Utah (United States (USA)) English 
    其它: The invasions may threaten wildlife because they alter the structure and function of relatively diverse marshes (Roman et al 1984, in Marks et al1993).

    改变林火机制: The invasions also increase the potential for marsh fires during the winter when the above ground portions of the plant die and dry out (Reimer 1973, in Marks et al1993).

    物理干扰: The monitoring and control of mosquito breeding is nearly impossible in dense stands (Hellings and Gallagher 1992, in Marks et al1993).

    竞争: VDCR / VNPS (Undated) states that it has become a destructive weed, quickly displacing desirable plant species. Marks et al (1993) state that it is typically the dominant species on areas that it occupies. It often forms dense, virtually monospecific stands.
    Virginia (United States (USA)) English 
    其它: The invasions may threaten wildlife because they alter the structure and function of relatively diverse marshes (Roman et al 1984, in Marks et al1993).

    改变林火机制: The invasions also increase the potential for marsh fires during the winter when the above ground portions of the plant die and dry out (Reimer 1973, in Marks et al1993).

    物理干扰: The monitoring and control of mosquito breeding is nearly impossible in dense stands (Hellings and Gallagher 1992, in Marks et al1993).

    竞争: VDCR / VNPS (Undated) states that it has become a destructive weed, quickly displacing desirable plant species. Marks et al (1993) state that it is typically the dominant species on areas that it occupies. It often forms dense, virtually monospecific stands.
    West Virginia (United States (USA)) English 
    其它: The invasions may threaten wildlife because they alter the structure and function of relatively diverse marshes (Roman et al 1984, in Marks et al1993).

    改变林火机制: The invasions also increase the potential for marsh fires during the winter when the above ground portions of the plant die and dry out (Reimer 1973, in Marks et al1993).

    物理干扰: The monitoring and control of mosquito breeding is nearly impossible in dense stands (Hellings and Gallagher 1992, in Marks et al1993).

    竞争: VDCR / VNPS (Undated) states that it has become a destructive weed, quickly displacing desirable plant species. Marks et al (1993) state that it is typically the dominant species on areas that it occupies. It often forms dense, virtually monospecific stands.
    Wisconsin (United States (USA)) English 
    其它: The invasions may threaten wildlife because they alter the structure and function of relatively diverse marshes (Roman et al 1984, in Marks et al1993).

    改变林火机制: The invasions also increase the potential for marsh fires during the winter when the above ground portions of the plant die and dry out (Reimer 1973, in Marks et al1993).

    物理干扰: The monitoring and control of mosquito breeding is nearly impossible in dense stands (Hellings and Gallagher 1992, in Marks et al1993).

    竞争: VDCR / VNPS (Undated) states that it has become a destructive weed, quickly displacing desirable plant species. Marks et al (1993) state that it is typically the dominant species on areas that it occupies. It often forms dense, virtually monospecific stands.
    Wyoming (United States (USA)) English 
    其它: The invasions may threaten wildlife because they alter the structure and function of relatively diverse marshes (Roman et al 1984, in Marks et al1993).

    改变林火机制: The invasions also increase the potential for marsh fires during the winter when the above ground portions of the plant die and dry out (Reimer 1973, in Marks et al1993).

    物理干扰: The monitoring and control of mosquito breeding is nearly impossible in dense stands (Hellings and Gallagher 1992, in Marks et al1993).

    竞争: VDCR / VNPS (Undated) states that it has become a destructive weed, quickly displacing desirable plant species. Marks et al (1993) state that it is typically the dominant species on areas that it occupies. It often forms dense, virtually monospecific stands.



ISSG Landcare Research NBII IUCN University of Auckland