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   Phragmites australis (grass)    
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         General Impact

    Marks et al. (1993) state that many populations of Phragmites are "benign" and pose little or no threat to other species and should be left intact. Stable populations may be difficult to distinguish from invasive populations. Phragmites is a problem when and where stands appear to be spreading while other species typical of the community are diminishing. Many Atlantic coast wetland systems have been invaded by it as a result of tidal restrictions imposed by roads, water impoundments, dikes and tide gates. The invasions may threaten wildlife because Phragmites alters the structure and function (wildlife support) of relatively diverse Spartina marshes (Roman et al. 1984, in Marks et al. 1993). In the United States this is a problem on many of the eastern coastal National Fish and Wildlife Refuges. The invasions also increase the potential for marsh fires during the winter when the above ground portions of the plant die and dry out (Reimer 1973, in Marks et al. 1993). Dense congregations of redwing blackbirds (Agelaius phoeniceus), which nest in P. australis stands preferentially, increase chances of airplane accidents nearby. The monitoring and control of mosquito breeding is nearly impossible in dense stands (Hellings and Gallagher 1992, in Marks et al. 1993). In addition, the invasions can also have adverse aesthetic impacts.



         Location Specific Impacts:
    Connecticut (United States (USA)) English 
    Competition: VDCR / VNPS (Undated) states that it has become a destructive weed, quickly displacing desirable plant species. Marks et al (1993) state that it is typically the dominant species on areas that it occupies. It often forms dense, virtually monospecific stands.

    Modification of fire regime: The invasions also increase the potential for marsh fires during the winter when the above ground portions of the plant die and dry out (Reimer 1973, in Marks et al1993).

    Other: The invasions may threaten wildlife because they alter the structure and function of relatively diverse marshes (Roman et al 1984, in Marks et al1993).

    Physical disturbance: The monitoring and control of mosquito breeding is nearly impossible in dense stands (Hellings and Gallagher 1992, in Marks et al1993).
    Maine (United States (USA)) English 
    Competition: VDCR / VNPS (Undated) states that it has become a destructive weed, quickly displacing desirable plant species. Marks et al (1993) state that it is typically the dominant species on areas that it occupies. It often forms dense, virtually monospecific stands.

    Modification of fire regime: The invasions also increase the potential for marsh fires during the winter when the above ground portions of the plant die and dry out (Reimer 1973, in Marks et al1993).

    Other: The invasions may threaten wildlife because they alter the structure and function of relatively diverse marshes (Roman et al 1984, in Marks et al1993).

    Physical disturbance: The monitoring and control of mosquito breeding is nearly impossible in dense stands (Hellings and Gallagher 1992, in Marks et al1993).
    Massachusetts (United States (USA)) English 
    Competition: VDCR / VNPS (Undated) states that it has become a destructive weed, quickly displacing desirable plant species. Marks et al (1993) state that it is typically the dominant species on areas that it occupies. It often forms dense, virtually monospecific stands.

    Modification of fire regime: The invasions also increase the potential for marsh fires during the winter when the above ground portions of the plant die and dry out (Reimer 1973, in Marks et al1993).

    Other: The invasions may threaten wildlife because they alter the structure and function of relatively diverse marshes (Roman et al 1984, in Marks et al1993).

    Physical disturbance: The monitoring and control of mosquito breeding is nearly impossible in dense stands (Hellings and Gallagher 1992, in Marks et al1993).
    New Hampshire (United States (USA)) English 
    Competition: VDCR / VNPS (Undated) states that it has become a destructive weed, quickly displacing desirable plant species. Marks et al (1993) state that it is typically the dominant species on areas that it occupies. It often forms dense, virtually monospecific stands.

    Modification of fire regime: The invasions also increase the potential for marsh fires during the winter when the above ground portions of the plant die and dry out (Reimer 1973, in Marks et al1993).

    Other: The invasions may threaten wildlife because they alter the structure and function of relatively diverse marshes (Roman et al 1984, in Marks et al1993).

    Physical disturbance: The monitoring and control of mosquito breeding is nearly impossible in dense stands (Hellings and Gallagher 1992, in Marks et al1993).
    Rhode Island (United States (USA)) English 
    Competition: VDCR / VNPS (Undated) states that it has become a destructive weed, quickly displacing desirable plant species. Marks et al (1993) state that it is typically the dominant species on areas that it occupies. It often forms dense, virtually monospecific stands.

    Modification of fire regime: The invasions also increase the potential for marsh fires during the winter when the above ground portions of the plant die and dry out (Reimer 1973, in Marks et al1993).

    Other: The invasions may threaten wildlife because they alter the structure and function of relatively diverse marshes (Roman et al 1984, in Marks et al1993).

    Physical disturbance: The monitoring and control of mosquito breeding is nearly impossible in dense stands (Hellings and Gallagher 1992, in Marks et al1993).
    Vermont (United States (USA)) English 
    Competition: VDCR / VNPS (Undated) states that it has become a destructive weed, quickly displacing desirable plant species. Marks et al (1993) state that it is typically the dominant species on areas that it occupies. It often forms dense, virtually monospecific stands.

    Modification of fire regime: The invasions also increase the potential for marsh fires during the winter when the above ground portions of the plant die and dry out (Reimer 1973, in Marks et al1993).

    Other: The invasions may threaten wildlife because they alter the structure and function of relatively diverse marshes (Roman et al 1984, in Marks et al1993).

    Physical disturbance: The monitoring and control of mosquito breeding is nearly impossible in dense stands (Hellings and Gallagher 1992, in Marks et al1993).
    Arizona (United States (USA)) English 
    Competition: VDCR / VNPS (Undated) states that it has become a destructive weed, quickly displacing desirable plant species. Marks et al (1993) state that it is typically the dominant species on areas that it occupies. It often forms dense, virtually monospecific stands.

    Modification of fire regime: The invasions also increase the potential for marsh fires during the winter when the above ground portions of the plant die and dry out (Reimer 1973, in Marks et al1993).

    Other: The invasions may threaten wildlife because they alter the structure and function of relatively diverse marshes (Roman et al 1984, in Marks et al1993).

    Physical disturbance: The monitoring and control of mosquito breeding is nearly impossible in dense stands (Hellings and Gallagher 1992, in Marks et al1993).
    California (United States (USA)) English 
    Competition: VDCR / VNPS (Undated) states that it has become a destructive weed, quickly displacing desirable plant species. Marks et al (1993) state that it is typically the dominant species on areas that it occupies. It often forms dense, virtually monospecific stands.

    Modification of fire regime: The invasions also increase the potential for marsh fires during the winter when the above ground portions of the plant die and dry out (Reimer 1973, in Marks et al1993).

    Other: The invasions may threaten wildlife because they alter the structure and function of relatively diverse marshes (Roman et al 1984, in Marks et al1993).

    Physical disturbance: The monitoring and control of mosquito breeding is nearly impossible in dense stands (Hellings and Gallagher 1992, in Marks et al1993).
    Colorado (United States (USA)) English 
    Competition: VDCR / VNPS (Undated) states that it has become a destructive weed, quickly displacing desirable plant species. Marks et al (1993) state that it is typically the dominant species on areas that it occupies. It often forms dense, virtually monospecific stands.

    Modification of fire regime: The invasions also increase the potential for marsh fires during the winter when the above ground portions of the plant die and dry out (Reimer 1973, in Marks et al1993).

    Other: The invasions may threaten wildlife because they alter the structure and function of relatively diverse marshes (Roman et al 1984, in Marks et al1993).

    Physical disturbance: The monitoring and control of mosquito breeding is nearly impossible in dense stands (Hellings and Gallagher 1992, in Marks et al1993).
    Delaware (United States (USA)) English 
    Competition: VDCR / VNPS (Undated) states that it has become a destructive weed, quickly displacing desirable plant species. Marks et al (1993) state that it is typically the dominant species on areas that it occupies. It often forms dense, virtually monospecific stands.

    Modification of fire regime: The invasions also increase the potential for marsh fires during the winter when the above ground portions of the plant die and dry out (Reimer 1973, in Marks et al1993).

    Other: The invasions may threaten wildlife because they alter the structure and function of relatively diverse marshes (Roman et al 1984, in Marks et al1993).

    Physical disturbance: The monitoring and control of mosquito breeding is nearly impossible in dense stands (Hellings and Gallagher 1992, in Marks et al1993).
    Georgia (USA) (United States (USA)) English 
    Competition: VDCR / VNPS (Undated) states that it has become a destructive weed, quickly displacing desirable plant species. Marks et al (1993) state that it is typically the dominant species on areas that it occupies. It often forms dense, virtually monospecific stands.

    Modification of fire regime: The invasions also increase the potential for marsh fires during the winter when the above ground portions of the plant die and dry out (Reimer 1973, in Marks et al1993).

    Other: The invasions may threaten wildlife because they alter the structure and function of relatively diverse marshes (Roman et al 1984, in Marks et al1993).

    Physical disturbance: The monitoring and control of mosquito breeding is nearly impossible in dense stands (Hellings and Gallagher 1992, in Marks et al1993).
    Idaho (United States (USA)) English 
    Competition: VDCR / VNPS (Undated) states that it has become a destructive weed, quickly displacing desirable plant species. Marks et al (1993) state that it is typically the dominant species on areas that it occupies. It often forms dense, virtually monospecific stands.

    Modification of fire regime: The invasions also increase the potential for marsh fires during the winter when the above ground portions of the plant die and dry out (Reimer 1973, in Marks et al1993).

    Other: The invasions may threaten wildlife because they alter the structure and function of relatively diverse marshes (Roman et al 1984, in Marks et al1993).

    Physical disturbance: The monitoring and control of mosquito breeding is nearly impossible in dense stands (Hellings and Gallagher 1992, in Marks et al1993).
    Illinois (United States (USA)) English 
    Competition: VDCR / VNPS (Undated) states that it has become a destructive weed, quickly displacing desirable plant species. Marks et al (1993) state that it is typically the dominant species on areas that it occupies. It often forms dense, virtually monospecific stands.

    Modification of fire regime: The invasions also increase the potential for marsh fires during the winter when the above ground portions of the plant die and dry out (Reimer 1973, in Marks et al1993).

    Other: The invasions may threaten wildlife because they alter the structure and function of relatively diverse marshes (Roman et al 1984, in Marks et al1993).

    Physical disturbance: The monitoring and control of mosquito breeding is nearly impossible in dense stands (Hellings and Gallagher 1992, in Marks et al1993).
    Indiana (United States (USA)) English 
    Modification of fire regime: The invasions also increase the potential for marsh fires during the winter when the above ground portions of the plant die and dry out (Reimer 1973, in Marks et al1993).

    Physical disturbance: The monitoring and control of mosquito breeding is nearly impossible in dense stands (Hellings and Gallagher 1992, in Marks et al1993).
    Indiana (United States (USA)) English 
    Competition: VDCR / VNPS (Undated) states that it has become a destructive weed, quickly displacing desirable plant species. Marks et al (1993) state that it is typically the dominant species on areas that it occupies. It often forms dense, virtually monospecific stands.
    Iowa (United States (USA)) English 
    Competition: VDCR / VNPS (Undated) states that it has become a destructive weed, quickly displacing desirable plant species. Marks et al (1993) state that it is typically the dominant species on areas that it occupies. It often forms dense, virtually monospecific stands.

    Modification of fire regime: The invasions also increase the potential for marsh fires during the winter when the above ground portions of the plant die and dry out (Reimer 1973, in Marks et al1993).

    Other: The invasions may threaten wildlife because they alter the structure and function of relatively diverse marshes (Roman et al 1984, in Marks et al1993).

    Physical disturbance: The monitoring and control of mosquito breeding is nearly impossible in dense stands (Hellings and Gallagher 1992, in Marks et al1993).
    Kansas (United States (USA)) English 
    Competition: VDCR / VNPS (Undated) states that it has become a destructive weed, quickly displacing desirable plant species. Marks et al (1993) state that it is typically the dominant species on areas that it occupies. It often forms dense, virtually monospecific stands.

    Modification of fire regime: The invasions also increase the potential for marsh fires during the winter when the above ground portions of the plant die and dry out (Reimer 1973, in Marks et al1993).

    Other: The invasions may threaten wildlife because they alter the structure and function of relatively diverse marshes (Roman et al 1984, in Marks et al1993).

    Physical disturbance: The monitoring and control of mosquito breeding is nearly impossible in dense stands (Hellings and Gallagher 1992, in Marks et al1993).
    Kentucky (United States (USA)) English 
    Competition: VDCR / VNPS (Undated) states that it has become a destructive weed, quickly displacing desirable plant species. Marks et al (1993) state that it is typically the dominant species on areas that it occupies. It often forms dense, virtually monospecific stands.

    Modification of fire regime: The invasions also increase the potential for marsh fires during the winter when the above ground portions of the plant die and dry out (Reimer 1973, in Marks et al1993).

    Other: The invasions may threaten wildlife because they alter the structure and function of relatively diverse marshes (Roman et al 1984, in Marks et al1993).

    Physical disturbance: The monitoring and control of mosquito breeding is nearly impossible in dense stands (Hellings and Gallagher 1992, in Marks et al1993).
    Maryland (USA) (United States (USA)) English 
    Competition: VDCR / VNPS (Undated) states that it has become a destructive weed, quickly displacing desirable plant species. Marks et al (1993) state that it is typically the dominant species on areas that it occupies. It often forms dense, virtually monospecific stands.

    Modification of fire regime: The invasions also increase the potential for marsh fires during the winter when the above ground portions of the plant die and dry out (Reimer 1973, in Marks et al1993).

    Other: The invasions may threaten wildlife because they alter the structure and function of relatively diverse marshes (Roman et al 1984, in Marks et al1993).

    Physical disturbance: The monitoring and control of mosquito breeding is nearly impossible in dense stands (Hellings and Gallagher 1992, in Marks et al1993).
    Michigan (United States (USA)) English 
    Competition: VDCR / VNPS (Undated) states that it has become a destructive weed, quickly displacing desirable plant species. Marks et al (1993) state that it is typically the dominant species on areas that it occupies. It often forms dense, virtually monospecific stands.

    Modification of fire regime: The invasions also increase the potential for marsh fires during the winter when the above ground portions of the plant die and dry out (Reimer 1973, in Marks et al1993).

    Other: The invasions may threaten wildlife because they alter the structure and function of relatively diverse marshes (Roman et al 1984, in Marks et al1993).

    Physical disturbance: The monitoring and control of mosquito breeding is nearly impossible in dense stands (Hellings and Gallagher 1992, in Marks et al1993).
    Minnesota (United States (USA)) English 
    Competition: VDCR / VNPS (Undated) states that it has become a destructive weed, quickly displacing desirable plant species. Marks et al (1993) state that it is typically the dominant species on areas that it occupies. It often forms dense, virtually monospecific stands.

    Modification of fire regime: The invasions also increase the potential for marsh fires during the winter when the above ground portions of the plant die and dry out (Reimer 1973, in Marks et al1993).

    Other: The invasions may threaten wildlife because they alter the structure and function of relatively diverse marshes (Roman et al 1984, in Marks et al1993).

    Physical disturbance: The monitoring and control of mosquito breeding is nearly impossible in dense stands (Hellings and Gallagher 1992, in Marks et al1993).
    Mississippi (United States (USA)) English 
    Competition: VDCR / VNPS (Undated) states that it has become a destructive weed, quickly displacing desirable plant species. Marks et al (1993) state that it is typically the dominant species on areas that it occupies. It often forms dense, virtually monospecific stands.

    Modification of fire regime: The invasions also increase the potential for marsh fires during the winter when the above ground portions of the plant die and dry out (Reimer 1973, in Marks et al1993).

    Other: The invasions may threaten wildlife because they alter the structure and function of relatively diverse marshes (Roman et al 1984, in Marks et al1993).

    Physical disturbance: The monitoring and control of mosquito breeding is nearly impossible in dense stands (Hellings and Gallagher 1992, in Marks et al1993).
    Missouri (United States (USA)) English 
    Competition: VDCR / VNPS (Undated) states that it has become a destructive weed, quickly displacing desirable plant species. Marks et al (1993) state that it is typically the dominant species on areas that it occupies. It often forms dense, virtually monospecific stands.

    Modification of fire regime: The invasions also increase the potential for marsh fires during the winter when the above ground portions of the plant die and dry out (Reimer 1973, in Marks et al1993).

    Other: The invasions may threaten wildlife because they alter the structure and function of relatively diverse marshes (Roman et al 1984, in Marks et al1993).

    Physical disturbance: The monitoring and control of mosquito breeding is nearly impossible in dense stands (Hellings and Gallagher 1992, in Marks et al1993).
    Montana (United States (USA)) English 
    Competition: VDCR / VNPS (Undated) states that it has become a destructive weed, quickly displacing desirable plant species. Marks et al (1993) state that it is typically the dominant species on areas that it occupies. It often forms dense, virtually monospecific stands.

    Modification of fire regime: The invasions also increase the potential for marsh fires during the winter when the above ground portions of the plant die and dry out (Reimer 1973, in Marks et al1993).

    Other: The invasions may threaten wildlife because they alter the structure and function of relatively diverse marshes (Roman et al 1984, in Marks et al1993).

    Physical disturbance: The monitoring and control of mosquito breeding is nearly impossible in dense stands (Hellings and Gallagher 1992, in Marks et al1993).
    Nebraska (United States (USA)) English 
    Competition: VDCR / VNPS (Undated) states that it has become a destructive weed, quickly displacing desirable plant species. Marks et al (1993) state that it is typically the dominant species on areas that it occupies. It often forms dense, virtually monospecific stands.

    Modification of fire regime: The invasions also increase the potential for marsh fires during the winter when the above ground portions of the plant die and dry out (Reimer 1973, in Marks et al1993).

    Other: The invasions may threaten wildlife because they alter the structure and function of relatively diverse marshes (Roman et al 1984, in Marks et al1993).

    Physical disturbance: The monitoring and control of mosquito breeding is nearly impossible in dense stands (Hellings and Gallagher 1992, in Marks et al1993).
    Nevada (United States (USA)) English 
    Competition: VDCR / VNPS (Undated) states that it has become a destructive weed, quickly displacing desirable plant species. Marks et al (1993) state that it is typically the dominant species on areas that it occupies. It often forms dense, virtually monospecific stands.

    Modification of fire regime: The invasions also increase the potential for marsh fires during the winter when the above ground portions of the plant die and dry out (Reimer 1973, in Marks et al1993).

    Other: The invasions may threaten wildlife because they alter the structure and function of relatively diverse marshes (Roman et al 1984, in Marks et al1993).

    Physical disturbance: The monitoring and control of mosquito breeding is nearly impossible in dense stands (Hellings and Gallagher 1992, in Marks et al1993).
    New Jersey (United States (USA)) English 
    Competition: VDCR / VNPS (Undated) states that it has become a destructive weed, quickly displacing desirable plant species. Marks et al (1993) state that it is typically the dominant species on areas that it occupies. It often forms dense, virtually monospecific stands.

    Modification of fire regime: The invasions also increase the potential for marsh fires during the winter when the above ground portions of the plant die and dry out (Reimer 1973, in Marks et al1993).

    Other: The invasions may threaten wildlife because they alter the structure and function of relatively diverse marshes (Roman et al 1984, in Marks et al1993).

    Physical disturbance: The monitoring and control of mosquito breeding is nearly impossible in dense stands (Hellings and Gallagher 1992, in Marks et al1993).
    New Mexico (United States (USA)) English 
    Competition: VDCR / VNPS (Undated) states that it has become a destructive weed, quickly displacing desirable plant species. Marks et al (1993) state that it is typically the dominant species on areas that it occupies. It often forms dense, virtually monospecific stands.

    Modification of fire regime: The invasions also increase the potential for marsh fires during the winter when the above ground portions of the plant die and dry out (Reimer 1973, in Marks et al1993).

    Other: The invasions may threaten wildlife because they alter the structure and function of relatively diverse marshes (Roman et al 1984, in Marks et al1993).

    Physical disturbance: The monitoring and control of mosquito breeding is nearly impossible in dense stands (Hellings and Gallagher 1992, in Marks et al1993).
    New York (United States (USA)) English 
    Competition: VDCR / VNPS (Undated) states that it has become a destructive weed, quickly displacing desirable plant species. Marks et al (1993) state that it is typically the dominant species on areas that it occupies. It often forms dense, virtually monospecific stands.

    Modification of fire regime: The invasions also increase the potential for marsh fires during the winter when the above ground portions of the plant die and dry out (Reimer 1973, in Marks et al1993).

    Other: The invasions may threaten wildlife because they alter the structure and function of relatively diverse marshes (Roman et al 1984, in Marks et al1993).

    Physical disturbance: The monitoring and control of mosquito breeding is nearly impossible in dense stands (Hellings and Gallagher 1992, in Marks et al1993).
    North Carolina (United States (USA)) English 
    Competition: VDCR / VNPS (Undated) states that it has become a destructive weed, quickly displacing desirable plant species. Marks et al (1993) state that it is typically the dominant species on areas that it occupies. It often forms dense, virtually monospecific stands.

    Modification of fire regime: The invasions also increase the potential for marsh fires during the winter when the above ground portions of the plant die and dry out (Reimer 1973, in Marks et al1993).

    Other: The invasions may threaten wildlife because they alter the structure and function of relatively diverse marshes (Roman et al 1984, in Marks et al1993).

    Physical disturbance: The monitoring and control of mosquito breeding is nearly impossible in dense stands (Hellings and Gallagher 1992, in Marks et al1993).
    North Dakota (United States (USA)) English 
    Competition: VDCR / VNPS (Undated) states that it has become a destructive weed, quickly displacing desirable plant species. Marks et al (1993) state that it is typically the dominant species on areas that it occupies. It often forms dense, virtually monospecific stands.

    Modification of fire regime: The invasions also increase the potential for marsh fires during the winter when the above ground portions of the plant die and dry out (Reimer 1973, in Marks et al1993).

    Other: The invasions may threaten wildlife because they alter the structure and function of relatively diverse marshes (Roman et al 1984, in Marks et al1993).

    Physical disturbance: The monitoring and control of mosquito breeding is nearly impossible in dense stands (Hellings and Gallagher 1992, in Marks et al1993).
    Ohio (United States (USA)) English 
    Competition: VDCR / VNPS (Undated) states that it has become a destructive weed, quickly displacing desirable plant species. Marks et al (1993) state that it is typically the dominant species on areas that it occupies. It often forms dense, virtually monospecific stands.

    Modification of fire regime: The invasions also increase the potential for marsh fires during the winter when the above ground portions of the plant die and dry out (Reimer 1973, in Marks et al1993).

    Other: The invasions may threaten wildlife because they alter the structure and function of relatively diverse marshes (Roman et al 1984, in Marks et al1993).

    Physical disturbance: The monitoring and control of mosquito breeding is nearly impossible in dense stands (Hellings and Gallagher 1992, in Marks et al1993).
    Oklahoma (United States (USA)) English 
    Competition: VDCR / VNPS (Undated) states that it has become a destructive weed, quickly displacing desirable plant species. Marks et al (1993) state that it is typically the dominant species on areas that it occupies. It often forms dense, virtually monospecific stands.

    Modification of fire regime: The invasions also increase the potential for marsh fires during the winter when the above ground portions of the plant die and dry out (Reimer 1973, in Marks et al1993).

    Other: The invasions may threaten wildlife because they alter the structure and function of relatively diverse marshes (Roman et al 1984, in Marks et al1993).

    Physical disturbance: The monitoring and control of mosquito breeding is nearly impossible in dense stands (Hellings and Gallagher 1992, in Marks et al1993).
    Oregon (United States (USA)) English 
    Competition: VDCR / VNPS (Undated) states that it has become a destructive weed, quickly displacing desirable plant species. Marks et al (1993) state that it is typically the dominant species on areas that it occupies. It often forms dense, virtually monospecific stands.

    Modification of fire regime: The invasions also increase the potential for marsh fires during the winter when the above ground portions of the plant die and dry out (Reimer 1973, in Marks et al1993).

    Other: The invasions may threaten wildlife because they alter the structure and function of relatively diverse marshes (Roman et al 1984, in Marks et al1993).

    Physical disturbance: The monitoring and control of mosquito breeding is nearly impossible in dense stands (Hellings and Gallagher 1992, in Marks et al1993).
    Pennsylvania (United States (USA)) English 
    Competition: VDCR / VNPS (Undated) states that it has become a destructive weed, quickly displacing desirable plant species. Marks et al (1993) state that it is typically the dominant species on areas that it occupies. It often forms dense, virtually monospecific stands.

    Modification of fire regime: The invasions also increase the potential for marsh fires during the winter when the above ground portions of the plant die and dry out (Reimer 1973, in Marks et al1993).

    Other: The invasions may threaten wildlife because they alter the structure and function of relatively diverse marshes (Roman et al 1984, in Marks et al1993).

    Physical disturbance: The monitoring and control of mosquito breeding is nearly impossible in dense stands (Hellings and Gallagher 1992, in Marks et al1993).
    South Carolina (United States (USA)) English 
    Competition: VDCR / VNPS (Undated) states that it has become a destructive weed, quickly displacing desirable plant species. Marks et al (1993) state that it is typically the dominant species on areas that it occupies. It often forms dense, virtually monospecific stands.

    Modification of fire regime: The invasions also increase the potential for marsh fires during the winter when the above ground portions of the plant die and dry out (Reimer 1973, in Marks et al1993).

    Other: The invasions may threaten wildlife because they alter the structure and function of relatively diverse marshes (Roman et al 1984, in Marks et al1993).

    Physical disturbance: The monitoring and control of mosquito breeding is nearly impossible in dense stands (Hellings and Gallagher 1992, in Marks et al1993).
    South Dakota (United States (USA)) English 
    Competition: VDCR / VNPS (Undated) states that it has become a destructive weed, quickly displacing desirable plant species. Marks et al (1993) state that it is typically the dominant species on areas that it occupies. It often forms dense, virtually monospecific stands.

    Modification of fire regime: The invasions also increase the potential for marsh fires during the winter when the above ground portions of the plant die and dry out (Reimer 1973, in Marks et al1993).

    Other: The invasions may threaten wildlife because they alter the structure and function of relatively diverse marshes (Roman et al 1984, in Marks et al1993).

    Physical disturbance: The monitoring and control of mosquito breeding is nearly impossible in dense stands (Hellings and Gallagher 1992, in Marks et al1993).
    Tennessee (United States (USA)) English 
    Competition: VDCR / VNPS (Undated) states that it has become a destructive weed, quickly displacing desirable plant species. Marks et al (1993) state that it is typically the dominant species on areas that it occupies. It often forms dense, virtually monospecific stands.

    Modification of fire regime: The invasions also increase the potential for marsh fires during the winter when the above ground portions of the plant die and dry out (Reimer 1973, in Marks et al1993).

    Other: The invasions may threaten wildlife because they alter the structure and function of relatively diverse marshes (Roman et al 1984, in Marks et al1993).

    Physical disturbance: The monitoring and control of mosquito breeding is nearly impossible in dense stands (Hellings and Gallagher 1992, in Marks et al1993).
    Texas (United States (USA)) English 
    Competition: VDCR / VNPS (Undated) states that it has become a destructive weed, quickly displacing desirable plant species. Marks et al (1993) state that it is typically the dominant species on areas that it occupies. It often forms dense, virtually monospecific stands.

    Modification of fire regime: The invasions also increase the potential for marsh fires during the winter when the above ground portions of the plant die and dry out (Reimer 1973, in Marks et al1993).

    Other: The invasions may threaten wildlife because they alter the structure and function of relatively diverse marshes (Roman et al 1984, in Marks et al1993).

    Physical disturbance: The monitoring and control of mosquito breeding is nearly impossible in dense stands (Hellings and Gallagher 1992, in Marks et al1993).
    Utah (United States (USA)) English 
    Competition: VDCR / VNPS (Undated) states that it has become a destructive weed, quickly displacing desirable plant species. Marks et al (1993) state that it is typically the dominant species on areas that it occupies. It often forms dense, virtually monospecific stands.

    Modification of fire regime: The invasions also increase the potential for marsh fires during the winter when the above ground portions of the plant die and dry out (Reimer 1973, in Marks et al1993).

    Other: The invasions may threaten wildlife because they alter the structure and function of relatively diverse marshes (Roman et al 1984, in Marks et al1993).

    Physical disturbance: The monitoring and control of mosquito breeding is nearly impossible in dense stands (Hellings and Gallagher 1992, in Marks et al1993).
    Virginia (United States (USA)) English 
    Competition: VDCR / VNPS (Undated) states that it has become a destructive weed, quickly displacing desirable plant species. Marks et al (1993) state that it is typically the dominant species on areas that it occupies. It often forms dense, virtually monospecific stands.

    Modification of fire regime: The invasions also increase the potential for marsh fires during the winter when the above ground portions of the plant die and dry out (Reimer 1973, in Marks et al1993).

    Other: The invasions may threaten wildlife because they alter the structure and function of relatively diverse marshes (Roman et al 1984, in Marks et al1993).

    Physical disturbance: The monitoring and control of mosquito breeding is nearly impossible in dense stands (Hellings and Gallagher 1992, in Marks et al1993).
    West Virginia (United States (USA)) English 
    Competition: VDCR / VNPS (Undated) states that it has become a destructive weed, quickly displacing desirable plant species. Marks et al (1993) state that it is typically the dominant species on areas that it occupies. It often forms dense, virtually monospecific stands.

    Modification of fire regime: The invasions also increase the potential for marsh fires during the winter when the above ground portions of the plant die and dry out (Reimer 1973, in Marks et al1993).

    Other: The invasions may threaten wildlife because they alter the structure and function of relatively diverse marshes (Roman et al 1984, in Marks et al1993).

    Physical disturbance: The monitoring and control of mosquito breeding is nearly impossible in dense stands (Hellings and Gallagher 1992, in Marks et al1993).
    Wisconsin (United States (USA)) English 
    Competition: VDCR / VNPS (Undated) states that it has become a destructive weed, quickly displacing desirable plant species. Marks et al (1993) state that it is typically the dominant species on areas that it occupies. It often forms dense, virtually monospecific stands.

    Modification of fire regime: The invasions also increase the potential for marsh fires during the winter when the above ground portions of the plant die and dry out (Reimer 1973, in Marks et al1993).

    Other: The invasions may threaten wildlife because they alter the structure and function of relatively diverse marshes (Roman et al 1984, in Marks et al1993).

    Physical disturbance: The monitoring and control of mosquito breeding is nearly impossible in dense stands (Hellings and Gallagher 1992, in Marks et al1993).
    Wyoming (United States (USA)) English 
    Competition: VDCR / VNPS (Undated) states that it has become a destructive weed, quickly displacing desirable plant species. Marks et al (1993) state that it is typically the dominant species on areas that it occupies. It often forms dense, virtually monospecific stands.

    Modification of fire regime: The invasions also increase the potential for marsh fires during the winter when the above ground portions of the plant die and dry out (Reimer 1973, in Marks et al1993).

    Other: The invasions may threaten wildlife because they alter the structure and function of relatively diverse marshes (Roman et al 1984, in Marks et al1993).

    Physical disturbance: The monitoring and control of mosquito breeding is nearly impossible in dense stands (Hellings and Gallagher 1992, in Marks et al1993).



ISSG Landcare Research NBII IUCN University of Auckland