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   Elodea canadensis (水生植物) English   
生態 分佈 管理 影響 參考資料 聯繫


         一般影響

    伊樂藻(Elodea canadensis)可能只需要三到四季就可以變成一個地方的主要雜草,這樣繁茂可以保持到10年以上(羅德韋爾, 1998)。在19世紀下半期和1990年代前半期,這個物種非常困擾歐洲各國,其迅速各地蔓延,造成主要的環境問題(CAB國際, 2005)。這水草對水生生態系統的運作,會有一個普遍的負面影響,並會排擠本土水生植物。此外,它可以阻礙水流,影響休閒活動(CAB國際, 2005)。這種植物對遮蔭的反應是減少葉片,伸長節間,以凌駕直接的競爭者,讓它的葉片得到更加有利的光照環境(Herault,Bornet & Tremolieres, 2008)。此物種的碎片有高的存活率,使它們能夠長距離散播,因此增加其入侵能力(巴拉-塞格雷坦,埃爾杰,Sagnes等 2002)。這個物種的萃取物會降低幾種水生初級生產者的生長,它們之間的附生藻類和藍藻分離出不同的沉水植物(艾哈德 & 格羅斯, 2006)。



         地點特有的影響:
    Gulf of Bothnia (Baltic Sea) English 
    棲地改變

    競爭: Elodea canadensis has exhibited community dominance (Baltic Sea Alien Species Database, 2007).
    France English 
    競爭: The relatively aggressive vegetative growth of Elodea canadensis leads to enormous competition between shoots of the same species with the consequence that one habitat becomes fully occupied by one genotype (Thiebaut, 2005).
    Norway English 
    棲地改變: There is concern that the establishment of Elodea canadensis caused a minor change in the environment due to competition with other native species. The plant competes with and displaces indigenous vegetation, thus reducing biodiversity. The dense stands affect the entire lake ecosystem (Josefsson & Andersson, 2001). could cause a deterioration in water quality and habitats, causing a decline in crayfish populations (Hessen, Skurdal & Braathen, 2004).
    Lake Baikal (Russian Federation) English 
    其他: Elodea canadensis can accumulate and metabolize toxic substances, and is highly toxic-resistant (Kozhova & Izhboldina, 1993).

    競爭: Elodea canadensis has a high competitive quality since it can survive frozen in ice, and prefers waters with a low mineral content and high transparency (Kozhova & Izhboldina, 1993).
    Sweden English 
    其他: Elodea canadensis also causes problems for boat traffic, fishing, swimming, and other recreational uses of the lakes where it is present (Josefsson & Andersson, 2001).

    棲地改變: Elodea canadensis caused a major change in the habitat modification in the lakes of sweden (Josefsson & Andersson, 2001).

    競爭: Elodea canadensis caused a minor change in the environment due to competition with other native species. The plant competes with and displaces indigenous vegetation, thus reducing biodiversity. The dense stands affect the entire lake ecosystem (Josefsson & Andersson, 2001).

    經濟 /民生: Elodea canadensis has caused minor economic and social effects in this area (Josefsson & Andersson, 2001).

    降低本地生物多樣性: Elodea canadensis caused a minor change in the environment due to competition with other native species. The plant competes with and displaces indigenous vegetation, thus reducing biodiversity. The dense stands affect the entire lake ecosystem (Josefsson & Andersson, 2001).
    United Kingdom (UK) English 
    競爭: Although it is now regarded as a naturalised aquatic plant, Elodea canadensis caused a minor change in the environment due to competition with other native species. The plant competes with and displaces indigenous vegetation, thus reducing biodiversity. The dense stands affect the entire lake ecosystem (Josefsson & Andersson, 2001). causes problems by competing for nutrients and outgrowing many native species (CEH, 2004).
    Southern Wales (United Kingdom (UK)) English 
    經濟 /民生: Large-scale harvesting of Elodea canadensis was necessitated in order to maintain water-based recreation (Wade, 1999).



ISSG Landcare Research NBII IUCN University of Auckland