In north Queensland, Australia, it forms dense monotypic stands which displace native vegetation, (PIER, 2003). Annona glabra is one of the worst invaders of the Wet Tropics. Its tolerance of salt and immersion in fresh water enables pond apple to invade melaleuca wetlands, where it forms a dense understorey and prevents young melaleucas from developing. (Wet Tropics Management Authority)
Location Specific Impacts:
Competition: Seedlings grow rapidly to form dense stands that shade out native grasses and sedges. Dense stands of pond apple then restrict germination of the smaller seeded tea trees thus leading to further progression of the invasion and suppression cycle.
Modification of fire regime: By shading out the ground cover pond apple also reduces the incidence of fire thus further increasing its dominance.