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   Vespula pensylvanica (昆蟲) English 
生態 分佈 管理 影響 參考資料 聯繫


         一般影響

    蜂影響很多人類的活動和價值,從保育、林業、園藝、養蜂業到人類健康。被黃蜂蜇傷後最好的情況是刺痛,最壞的情況會危及生命。少部分人會嚴重的過敏反應(稱為過敏性休克),可能會致命,除非及時治療(Landcare Research 2007)。
    在森林中,黃蜂會吃大量的原生昆蟲和大量的糖蜜露。因會食量大,黃蜂會取走原生動物潛在的食物來源,破壞自然食物鏈和森林生態系統循環(Landcare Research 2007)。西方黄胡蜂會捕食多種無脊椎動物類群。他們很可能對本地無脊椎動物產生很大的負面影響,例如在夏威夷,他們已經威脅到特有脊椎動物(由於原本生長在在沒有黃蜂的環境,沒有任何對抗捕食的機制)。直接減少原始節肢動物的物種多樣性和豐富度,可能導致其他問題,如減少原生森林鳥類的糧食供應的和減少原生植物的傳粉媒介(Gruner & Foote, 2000)。
    黃蜂也會帶來財政負擔。它們是基礎行業,如養蜂,林業和園藝的經濟害蟲(Beggs 2000)。黃蜂會完全摧毀或嚴重影響 10%的蜂箱,造成重大的經濟損失(Clapperton等人, 1989)。蜂箱通常被放置在靠近蜜源的森林或者其他獨特的花蜜來源附近,來產生濃味的蜂蜜。然而,黃蜂會降低蜜露和花蜜供應,減少蜂蜜產量,造成蜜蜂留在巢中節約能量和保護自己的蜂巢(Landcare Research2007)。



         地點特有的影響:
    Hawaii (Hawai‘i) Is. (United States (USA)) English 
    滋擾人類: "Yellowjackets are both a public health hazard and a public nuisance. They readily attack any animal that disturbs their nest and are attracted to food consumed out-of-doors" (Hollingsworth et al., 2009).

    生態系統變化: "The introduced vespid wasp, Vespula pensylvanica (Saussure), poses a major threat to the continued viability and health of Hawaiian arthropod communities because it a voracious generalist predator with large populations in social colonies. Its ecological impacts may lead to dramatic ecosystem changes and facilitation of invasion by other introduced species. Direct reduction of native arthropod species diversity and abundance (Gambino et al., 1987; Gambino, 1992) may lead to other insidious problems, such as a decrease in food availability for native forest birds and pollinators for native plants. A 1996 workshop on the conservation of native invertebrates, sponsored by the Secretariat for Conservation Biology, ranked the ecology and control of Vespula pensylvanica as the highest priority for research and management in Hawaii" (Gruner & Foote, 2000).

    降低本地生物多樣性: "In Hawaii, V. pensylvanica was found to consume large numbers of prey insects, potentially reducing populations of native insect species. In total, 22,000 prey items were taken in a single day by yellowjacket workers of a large nest (Howarth & Mull 1992; Stone & Pratt, 1995)" (Hollingsworth et al., 2009).
    Hawaii Volcanoes National Park (United States (USA)) English 
    滋擾人類: "Yellowjackets are both a public health hazard and a public nuisance. They readily attack any animal that disturbs their nest and are attracted to food consumed out-of-doors" (Hollingsworth et al., 2009).

    生態系統變化: "The introduced vespid wasp, Vespula pensylvanica (Saussure), poses a major threat to the continued viability and health of Hawaiian arthropod communities because it a voracious generalist predator with large populations in social colonies. Its ecological impacts may lead to dramatic ecosystem changes and facilitation of invasion by other introduced species. Direct reduction of native arthropod species diversity and abundance (Gambino et al., 1987; Gambino, 1992) may lead to other insidious problems, such as a decrease in food availability for native forest birds and pollinators for native plants. A 1996 workshop on the conservation of native invertebrates, sponsored by the Secretariat for Conservation Biology, ranked the ecology and control of Vespula pensylvanica as the highest priority for research and management in Hawaii" (Gruner & Foote, 2000).

    降低本地生物多樣性: "In Hawaii, V. pensylvanica was found to consume large numbers of prey insects, potentially reducing populations of native insect species. In total, 22,000 prey items were taken in a single day by yellowjacket workers of a large nest (Howarth & Mull 1992; Stone & Pratt, 1995)" (Hollingsworth et al., 2009).
    Kaua`i Is. (United States (USA)) English 
    滋擾人類: "Yellowjackets are both a public health hazard and a public nuisance. They readily attack any animal that disturbs their nest and are attracted to food consumed out-of-doors" (Hollingsworth et al., 2009).

    生態系統變化: "The introduced vespid wasp, Vespula pensylvanica (Saussure), poses a major threat to the continued viability and health of Hawaiian arthropod communities because it a voracious generalist predator with large populations in social colonies. Its ecological impacts may lead to dramatic ecosystem changes and facilitation of invasion by other introduced species. Direct reduction of native arthropod species diversity and abundance (Gambino et al., 1987; Gambino, 1992) may lead to other insidious problems, such as a decrease in food availability for native forest birds and pollinators for native plants. A 1996 workshop on the conservation of native invertebrates, sponsored by the Secretariat for Conservation Biology, ranked the ecology and control of Vespula pensylvanica as the highest priority for research and management in Hawaii" (Gruner & Foote, 2000).

    降低本地生物多樣性: "In Hawaii, V. pensylvanica was found to consume large numbers of prey insects, potentially reducing populations of native insect species. In total, 22,000 prey items were taken in a single day by yellowjacket workers of a large nest (Howarth & Mull 1992; Stone & Pratt, 1995)" (Hollingsworth et al., 2009).
    Maui Is. (United States (USA)) English 
    滋擾人類: "Yellowjackets are both a public health hazard and a public nuisance. They readily attack any animal that disturbs their nest and are attracted to food consumed out-of-doors" (Hollingsworth et al., 2009).

    生態系統變化: "The introduced vespid wasp, Vespula pensylvanica (Saussure), poses a major threat to the continued viability and health of Hawaiian arthropod communities because it a voracious generalist predator with large populations in social colonies. Its ecological impacts may lead to dramatic ecosystem changes and facilitation of invasion by other introduced species. Direct reduction of native arthropod species diversity and abundance (Gambino et al., 1987; Gambino, 1992) may lead to other insidious problems, such as a decrease in food availability for native forest birds and pollinators for native plants. A 1996 workshop on the conservation of native invertebrates, sponsored by the Secretariat for Conservation Biology, ranked the ecology and control of Vespula pensylvanica as the highest priority for research and management in Hawaii" (Gruner & Foote, 2000).

    降低本地生物多樣性: "In Hawaii, V. pensylvanica was found to consume large numbers of prey insects, potentially reducing populations of native insect species. In total, 22,000 prey items were taken in a single day by yellowjacket workers of a large nest (Howarth & Mull 1992; Stone & Pratt, 1995)" (Hollingsworth et al., 2009).
    Oahu Is. (United States (USA)) English 
    滋擾人類: It was not until an aggressive race of this species was reported from the island of Hawai‘i in 1977 (Asquith 1995) that its almost simultaneous population explosion and resultant intensive predatory habits began to have repercussions on the native invertebrate populations.
    Oahu Is. (United States (USA)) English 
    滋擾人類: "Yellowjackets are both a public health hazard and a public nuisance. They readily attack any animal that disturbs their nest and are attracted to food consumed out-of-doors" (Hollingsworth et al., 2009).

    生態系統變化: "The introduced vespid wasp, Vespula pensylvanica (Saussure), poses a major threat to the continued viability and health of Hawaiian arthropod communities because it a voracious generalist predator with large populations in social colonies. Its ecological impacts may lead to dramatic ecosystem changes and facilitation of invasion by other introduced species. Direct reduction of native arthropod species diversity and abundance (Gambino et al., 1987; Gambino, 1992) may lead to other insidious problems, such as a decrease in food availability for native forest birds and pollinators for native plants. A 1996 workshop on the conservation of native invertebrates, sponsored by the Secretariat for Conservation Biology, ranked the ecology and control of Vespula pensylvanica as the highest priority for research and management in Hawaii" (Gruner & Foote, 2000).

    降低本地生物多樣性: "In Hawaii, V. pensylvanica was found to consume large numbers of prey insects, potentially reducing populations of native insect species. In total, 22,000 prey items were taken in a single day by yellowjacket workers of a large nest (Howarth & Mull 1992; Stone & Pratt, 1995)" (Hollingsworth et al., 2009).



ISSG Landcare Research NBII IUCN University of Auckland