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   Celastrus orbiculatus (vine, climber)    
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         General Impact

    McNab and Loftis (2002) observe that, C. orbiculatus characteristics of shade tolerance, rapid growth response upon release from shading, prolific and consistent annual seed production with high viability and germination, and, adaptation to a wide range of suitable environments make it highly competitive with native vegetation and potentially difficult to manage in forests that are subject to recurrent natural or managed disturbance. Ellsworth et al. (2004) state, "Once established, C. orbiculatus can overtop and girdle native trees and shrubs along roads, in clearings and in forest gaps". The success of C. orbiculatus may be due to frequent natural and human-caused disturbances in the eastern U.S. (Robertson et al. 1994 ; Luken et al. 1997 ; McDonnell et al. 1997 ; McNab and Loftis, 2002 ). Disturbances can lead to plant invasions through an increase in the availability of resources such as germination sites, light and water (Hobbs and Huenneke, 1992 ; Greenberg et al. 2001 ). However, it has also been suggested that C. orbiculatus seedlings can become established and survive in intact forest understory (Paterson, 1974 , 1975 ; Greenberg et al. 2001 ). This ability has important implications for forest management because disturbances that result in increases in light may release C. orbiculatus already established in the understory. Silveri et al. (2001) state that, "The annual growth rate of C. orbiculatus may exceed 3m (Paterson 1974), allowing plants in open-light habitats to climb a canopy-sized tree in 3-4 growing seasons. Twining vines are generally limited to small-diameter supports (Teramura et al. 1991), but C. orbiculatus is able to climb tree trunks with a wide variety of diameters, aided by spiny projections around its bud and leaf scars that lodge in the host's bark. C. orbiculatus kills other vegetation through blanketing and constrictive twining, and halts the succession of young deciduous forests (McNab and Meeker 1987; Dreyer 1994)." Ellsworth et al. (2004) also suggest that failure to control it would result in severe forest degradation and considerably higher future costs associated with forest restoration.

    No Impact information recorded for Celastrus orbiculatus

ISSG Landcare Research NBII IUCN University of Auckland