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   Phytophthora cinnamomi  English   
生態 分佈 管理 影響 參考資料 聯繫


         一般影響

    根腐菌(Phytophthora cinnamomi)是 Phytophthora屬中最具毀滅性的種,會造成林業、園林與水果植物,以及大約 900種多年生木本植物的族群消減。(Ferraris et al.2004)

    商業企業例如農業項目與相關的植物業,受到 P. cinnamomi真菌,不利的影響。例如,在意大利,它被越來越頻繁地報導:首先發現在栗色灌木林與杜鵑屬的植物上,發現在苗圃及最近發現在栗子和扁柏苗圃和鱷梨,橡木,胡桃木和高灌藍莓。 P. cinnamomi會感染橡樹,推測 P. cinnamomi在一般的地中海區域與橡樹的嚴重衰微有關。(Robin et al. 2001). 病原體也在非洲大陸造成嚴重的損害,被認為是南非鱷梨果園最嚴重的疾病,造成根部腐爛,嚴重減少農作物生產量。(Bezuidenhout et al.1987)

    P. cinnamomi對原生植物的影響間接影響野生動物。根據 Rudman(Undated),到現在為止,澳洲塔斯梅尼亞181種植物,已經被記錄為 P. cinnamomi的宿主。塔斯梅尼亞受威脅植物至少 39 種易受 P. cinnamomi感染,受傳染區域的本土物種可能會快速死亡,無法再生。這種情況在其他地區有很大的差異,P. cinnamomi的不同宿主,有些顯示出抵抗性,有些則非常脆弱。

    P. cinnamomi有可能對北美原生生物群落造成重大生態破壞,從加州到阿巴拉契亞山脈。舉例來說,一項 Ione 石蘭科常綠灌木( Arctostaphylos myrtifolia)枯死的科學研究發現, P. cinnamomi病原體是致死的元兇。病原體引起原生植物枯萎,樹葉乾枯與根部壞疽,一般相信它會嚴重影響已經瀕危的 A. myrtifolia。(Swiecki 與 Bernhardt 2003).(Ione 石蘭科常綠灌木是在內華達山脈的山麓小丘,加州中被侷限於 Ione 形成土壤的一個稀有、透過皮膚發生作用、以及常綠的灌木。)另一個情況在哪裡 P. cinnamomi正在影響本地人加州的花似物種在 27% 的海岸生活橡樹(Quercus agrifolia)的湖霍奇周圍的森林地是顯示疾病癥狀而且被猜想感染病原體(Garbelotto 、 Huberli 與 Shaw 2006). 美國西部的所有自然橡木森林都可能因病原體而瀕臨生態損害的危險,Garbelotto, Huberli and Shaw(2006)的研究,有助於瞭解疾病因子(敏感度,其他害蟲),最終可能會有助於減少疾病的傳播。美國其他地方的病原體也造成生態破壞。例如,北美東部的阿巴拉契亞森林,板栗森林在正在掙扎求生,這種情況部分歸因於 P. cinnamomi的影響。雖然栗疫病歷來與板栗枯死關係密切,板栗復原的主要障礙是Phytophthora屬的卵菌病原體。最近在阿巴拉契亞森林種植的板栗幼苗死亡率很高,經由標準的診斷方法診斷出Phytophthora。(Rhoades et al.2003)




         地點特有的影響:
    Australia English 
    降低本地生物多樣性: The following native plants are affected by Phytophthora cinnamomi: Epacris purpurascens var. purpurascens, Eucalyptus imlayensis, Genoplesium rhyoliticum, Leionema ralstonii, Tasmannia pupurascens, Westringia davidii and Wollemia nobilis. The southern brown bandicoot Isoodon obesulus and the smoky mouse (see Pseudomys fumeus in IUCN Red List of Threatened Species) are affected by the loss of habitat.
    Tasmania (Australia) English 
    生態系統變化: Phytophthora cinnamomi causes severe disease in the understorey, or the shrub and ground layers of the vegetation in Tasmania. The susceptible species in Tasmania tend to come from the shrub and herbaceous families Dilleniaceae, Epacridaceae, Fabaceae, Proteaceae and Rutaceae. Resistant species generally belong to the grass and sedge families. The presence of P. cinnamomi can therefore lead to an understorey dominated by grasses or sedges.
    South Africa English 
    經濟 /民生: Root rot of avocado caused by P. cinnamomi is one of the most damaging diseases to South Africa's avocado orchards.
    Sierra Nevada (United States (USA)) English 
    降低本地生物多樣性: Ione manzanita (Arctostaphylos myrtifolia) is a rare, endemic, evergreen shrub restricted to Ione formation soils (infertile, acidic, sedimentary oxisols) in the foothills of the Sierra Nevada (near Ione). The widely distributed A. viscida (whiteleaf manzanita) intermixes with A. myrtifolia at the margins of Ione formation soils. Swiecki and Bernhardt (2003) examined mortality rates in this mixed vegetation and using scientific testing determined that wilting, foliage desiccation and root necrosis was being induced in the plants by the pathogenic fungus P. cinnamomi. This is the first report of root and crown rot caused by P. cinnamomi on A. myrtifolia and A. viscida. This disease will significantly impact conservation of the already threatened A. myrtifolia (Swiecki and Bernhardt 2003).
    California (United States (USA)) English 
    病原: During an intense survey of natural woodlands around Lake Hodges (33°N, 117°W) in June 2001, symptoms typical of root and collar rot caused by Phytophthora spp. were observed on 27% of 474 coast live oaks (Quercus agrifolia) and on none of 86 Engelmann oaks (Q. engelmannii), in spite of intermixing of the two species. Symptoms on coast live oaks included viscous exudates emerging through intact bark matched by underbark dark lesions with irregular margins. Lesions were delineated by a dark line and present on the root collar or the buttress of symptomatic trees. Crowns of trees with lesions ranged from completely healthy to declining or dead. All symptomatic trees were in proximity of the lake or streams. P. cinnamomi was isolated and identified from trees in three distinct sites. Although Q. agrifolia is a known host for P. cinnamomi in California, this is the first report of widespread infestation of P. cinnamomi in natural oak woodlands in the western United States. Survey and inoculation results indicated Q. engelmannii to be less susceptible to infection. Inoculation results confirm previous research that cold temperatures are unfavorable to this pathogen and isolates differed in pathogenicity toward Q. agrifolia. Decline of oaks infected by P. cinnamomi was observed only in conjunction with other factors, in particular with the presence of the oak twig girdler, Agrilus angelicus Horn., an insect favored by stress conditions such as drought. Similar effects have been reported for Mediterranean oaks infected by the same pathogen (Garbelotto, Hüberli and Shaw 2006).

    經濟 /民生: Phytophthora cinnamomi is the cause of avocado root rot, the main limiting factor in avocado production. In California, it affects between 60 and 75% of orchards, and in 1989 caused an annual loss of approximately $44 million.



ISSG Landcare Research NBII IUCN University of Auckland