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   Linepithema humile (昆蟲) English   
生態 分佈 管理 影響 參考資料 聯繫


         一般影響

    雖然(阿根廷蟻(Linepithema humile))主要被引入人為干擾的棲息地,它也能由原棲地穿透到稍受人為干擾的棲息地。例子包括:智利的 matorral,南非的 fynbos,南加州的海岸sage scrub,加州河岸的森林地,夏威夷亞高山帶的 shrubland,與橡樹與葡萄牙松樹森林地。

    L. humile是一隻優勢的螞蟻與一個侵略性競爭者。它在西班牙生態敏感地區取代了原生螞蟻,並造成加州原生螞蟻滅絕。(Suarez Bolger and Case 1998). 加州螞蟻中最明顯取代的是軍蟻( Neivamyrmexspp.)與穫蟻( Messor Pogonomyrmex),兩者都是重要的生態系統調節物種。 Monomorium屬的種,例如 M. ergatogyna,可能會存留,由於他們的化學防衛能力或他們對高溫度的容忍力。在引入的區域 L. humile可能會被入侵紅火蟻取代( Solenopis invicta), 另一隻侵入的螞蟻.(Holway et al.2002a)

    侵入螞蟻很可能會改變生態系統程序,包括以螞蟻為媒介的種子傳播或植物授粉。在加州,有阿根廷螞蟻的地方,蟻媒傳播性罌粟樹 Dendromecon rigida的種子較少被移除,有穫蟻的地方移除較多。(Carney et al. 2003)一個相似種結果已經出現在南非的 fynbos,大型原生螞蟻被 L. humile取代,導致依賴大螞蟻傳播的種子減少傳播機會,進而使那些植物減少繁殖。(Christian 2001, Holway et al. 2002a).

    原生節肢動物受到阿根廷螞蟻嚴重威脅。在南非,阿根廷螞蟻可以收集高達42%的可用花蜜,在蜜蜂可以覓食之前。(Buys 1987, in Holway et al. 2002a). 在夏威夷,阿根廷螞蟻減少許多本土節肢動物的數量, 包括必要的 pollinators(科爾 et al.1992, 在 Krushelnycky et al.2004), 這消失的哪一個會威脅昆蟲植物授粉的例如瀕危的 " silversword"(請參閱Argyroxiphium在 IUCN 紅皮書 )

    請參閱侵入螞蟻的一般衝擊的摘要:侵入的螞蟻影響 ISSG 彙編。




         地點特有的影響:
    Easter Is. (Rapa Nui) (Chile) English 
    競爭: The Argentine ant (Linepithema humile) is numerically dominant over most of the island and may have led to the extinction of several ant species on the island.
    France English 
    滋擾人類: The Argentine ant (Linepithema humile) is a nuisance for tourism on the Cote d'Azure (Benois 1973).

    競爭: The Argentine ant (Linepithema humile) displaces other ants (Benois 1973).

    農業: The Argentine ant (Linepithema humile) harms fruiting plants through homopteran tending (Benois 1973).
    Corsica (France) English 
    生態系統變化: In Corsica, the Argentine ant (Linepithema humile) appears less effective than Aphaenogaster spinosa, a dominant native ant, at dispersing the seeds of a rare endemic plant, but the consequences for the plant’s population dynamics are unclear (Quilichini and Debussche 2000, Holway et al. 2002a).
    Portugal English 
    競爭: Ant species richness and diversity is much lower in woodland invaded by the Argentine ant (Linepithema humile) (Cammell et al. 1996).
    South Africa English 
    競爭: Honeybees (Apis mellifera) in West Cape experience competitive pressure from the Argentine ant (Linepithema humile), which collects 42% of nectar before bees forage (Buys 1987, in Holway et al. 2002a).

    農業: The Argentine ant (Linepithema humile) may be an agricultural pest, causing population explosions of honeydew-producing Homoptera (Ness and Bronstein 2004). For example, outbreaks of the red scale insect Aonidiella aurantii in South African citrus orchards and outbreaks of the mealybug Planococcus ficus in South African vineyards have both been associated with L. humile (Samways et al. 1982, Addison and Samways 2000, in Holway et al. 2002a).
    Southern South Africa (South Africa) English 
    競爭: The Argentine ant (Linepithema humile) excludes native ant species in fynbos habitat, leading to reduced seed dispersal of native plants (Bond and Slingsby 1984; Christian 2001). Also, L. humile reduces diversity and abundance of arthropods on protea plants (Visser et al. 1996).
    Donana National Park (Spain) English 
    競爭: Aggressiveness tests have shown that the Argentine ant (Linepithema humile)displays a higher level of aggressive behaviour, including attacking behaviour, than does any other native ant species found in the Doñana National Park.

    降低本地生物多樣性: A survey by Carpintero and colleagues (2005) found that out of 182 cork trees (Quercus suber) in the park, 115 were occupied by Argentine ants. The second most common species was the native ant Camponotus scutelaris which occupied 40 trees. It is known that between 1992 and 2000 Argentine ants displaced native ant species from at least 23 trees. While C. scutelaris tolerates the presence of C. truncatus and C. lateralis (submissive native ants that form small colonies) it cannot survive with Argentine ants, which occupy trees on their own. Argentine ants are able to displace all native ant species in the Doñana National Park, causing a decrease in ant biodiversity.
    Haleakala National Park (United States (USA)) English 
    威脅瀕危物種: As the Argentine ant (Linepithema humile) reduces the numbers of native insect species, including pollinators, consequent indirect effects may be felt on native plants dependant on such pollinators. For example, there are at least two endangered plant species on upper Haleakala National Park that are dependent on native pollinators for seed set, including the “silversword” (Argyroxiphium spp.) (HEAR 2005).

    生態系統變化: The Argentine ant (Linepithema humile) has displaced endemic beetles, which are natural keystone invertebrate predators in the park (Cole et al. 1992, in Earlham College 2002).

    降低本地生物多樣性: Hawaiian arthropods evolved in the absence of ants and are highly vulnerable to the pressures imposed by ant predation and competition (Perkins 1913, Gillespie and Reimer 1993 1994, in Krushelnycky et al. 2004). Because of this the Argentine ant (Linepithema humile) is considered to be the single greatest threat to the survival of a number of unique arthropod species endemic to the upper Haleakala volcano (Haleakala National Park, Hawaii). Endemic arthropods are affected by Argentine ants by competitive pressures (e.g. spiders and acrabid beetles) and/or by predation by the ant (collembolans, lepidoptera larvae, bee larvae and flies) (Cole et al. 1992, in Holway et al. 2002a). Studies have found eight orders of arthropods to be reduced or absent in areas invaded by L. humile in Hawaii (Cole et al. 1992, in Holway et al. 2002a). These include essential arthropod pollinators (Cole et al. 1992, in Krushelnycky et al. 2004), and (Krushelnycky et al. 2004).
    California (United States (USA)) English 
    捕食: On Coronado Island, the Argentine ant (Linepithema humile) attacks and kills the endangered California least tern chicks (see Sterna antillarum browni) The status of this species in 1999 was 'stable'. (Hooper 1995).

    生態系統變化: The Argentine ant (Linepithema humile) may have indirect affects on seedling recruitment of myremecochorous plants in San Diego County (California). A study was conducted to measure the rates of removal seeds of the myrmecochorous tree poppy Dendromecon rigida from ant-accessible seed stations in various coastal sites in the region. The study found that significantly less seeds were collected in areas dominated by the Argentine ant (L. humile) than were collected in areas inhabited by the common harvester ant (Pogonomyrmex subnitidus). The latter is a native ant disperser that is sensitive to displacement by L. humile (Carney et al. 2003).
    In behavioural trials, L. humile was seldom able to carry whole seeds and, if it could, was only able to carry them a few centimetres. The displacement of native harvester ants by L. humile appears to decrease the dispersal of Dendromecon rigida seeds and may be increasing loss of seeds due to predation (Carney et al. 2003).

    競爭: The Argentine ant (Linepithema humile) has displaced most native ants in areas of California where it has become established (Ward 1987, Suarez et al. 1998, Erickson 1971, Human and Gordon 1996, Holway 1998 in Tsutsui et al. 2000). The Argentine ant is classified as a “dominant Dolichoderine” as it is highly active, abundant and behaviourally dominant to most other ant species (including those classified as “subordinate Camponotini”) (McGlynn 1999). According to this schema they are expected to have a typically large impact on native ant communities (McGlynn 1999).
    The data produced from a survey of 40 fragments of scrub habitat in California (Suarez Bolger and Case 1998) indicates that local extinctions of native ant species occur in habitat fragments in coastal southern California. The relative vulnerability of native ants to habitat fragmentation and the presence of Argentine ants was found to vary. The most sensitive species include army ants (Neivamyrmex spp.) and harvester ants (genera Messor and Pogonomyrmex) both of which are important to ecosystem-level processes (Suarez Bolger and Case 1998). L. humile excludes native and introduced ants (Suarez et al. 1998), reducing the food resource base for coastal horned lizards, possibly causing lower lizard abundances in Argentine ant invaded areas (Suarez et al. 2000).

    與其他入侵物種相互作用: A survey of 40 fragments of scrub habitat in California showed invasive ants to be more abundant near developed edges and in areas dominated by exotic species (Suarez Bolger and Case 1998).

    農業: Pests such as mealybugs and aphids may increase in number due to the activities of Argentine ants (Linepithema humile), threatening the cultivation of certain crops. Infestations of the mealybug Pseudococcus adonidum have been positively correlated with the Argentine ant in California (Phillips et al. 1987, in Holway et al. 2002a). L. humile has also been observed to remove parasitised individuals of the walnut aphid (Chromaphis juglandicola), improving the health of the aphid population by reducing the spread of these parasites (Frazer and Van den Bosch 1973, in Holway et al. 2002a).

    降低本地生物多樣性: In California many arthropods have been found to be reduced or absent in areas invaded by the Argentine ant (Linepithema humile), including: collembola, flies, spiders and beetles (Human and Gordon 1997, Bolger et al. 2000, in Holway et al. 2002a). Nest failure of the California gnatcatcher, Polioptila melanura, has been linked with the presence of L. humile. A negative relationship between numbers of gray shrew (Notiosorex crawfordi) captures and the abundance of L. humile has been detected (Sockman 1997, Laakkonen et al. 2001, in Holway et al. 2002a).
    Horned lizards (Phyrynosoma spp.) are particularly vulnerable to the effects of an Argentine ant invasion as their range is declining and they have a specialist diet consisting of native ant species (Pianka and Parker 1975, in Suarez Richmond and Case 2000). In areas invaded by the Argentine ant most native ants have been displaced and coastal horned lizards (P. coronatum), which usually feed on harvester ants such as Pogonomyrmex and Messor, are forced to incorporate non-ant arthropods and smaller ants into their diet (Suarez Richmond and Case 2000) as the lizards do not feed on the Argentine ants (Suarez Richmond and Case 2000). The displacement of coastal horned lizards by L. humile may be inferred from the lack of range overlap between the species (Fisher et al. 2002, in Holway et al. 2002a).
    Hawaii (United States (USA)) English 
    捕食: The Argentine ant (Linepithema humile) actively predates upon a number of native arthropod taxa, notably soft-bodied and flightless forms (Cole et al. 1992; Krushelnycky pers. obs.). Also has been seen attacking eggs of the Hawaiian goose, or Nene (F. Duvall pers. comm.).

    競爭: The Argentine ant (Linepithema humile) competes with native arthropods for limited food resources and nesting/shelter sites. Native arthropod abundances, including larvae of important pollinators, are consequently reduced (Cole et al. 1992).
    Southeast US (United States (USA)) English 
    滋擾人類: The Argentine ant (Linepithema humile) enters homes, often in large numbers.

    競爭: The Argentine ant (Linepithema humile) excludes native and introduced ants (Wilson 1951).



ISSG Landcare Research NBII IUCN University of Auckland