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   Anas platyrhynchos (鳥類) English  français 
生態 分佈 管理 影響 參考資料 聯繫


         一般影響

    綠頭鴨(Anas platyrhynchos)與特有種鴨子雜交,造成其中一些瀕臨滅絕。雜交的種類包括紐西蘭灰鴨(Anas superciliosa)、美國黑鴨(Anas rubripes)、墨西哥鴨()、北美斑鴨(Anas fulvigula)時,'瀕危(EN)'夏威夷鴨(參閱 Anas wyvilliana IUCN瀕危物種紅皮書 ),非洲黑鴨(Anas sparsa),黃嘴鴨(Anas undulatta),以及的'瀕危(EN)'麻斑鴨(參閱 Anas melleriIUCN瀕危物種紅皮書 )( AEWA, 2003; Kulikova et al., 2005; Uyehara, 2007; Fox, 2009)。因基因滲入,墨西哥鴨已不再被認為是一個種,在紐西蘭僅剩不到5%的非雜交純種灰鴨。
    在北美和歐洲,因狩獵的目經常放養人工繁殖個體於綠頭鴨族群,圈養與野生個體雜交,有可能威脅野鴨的遺傳完整性,這種做法的後果,還在研究(Champagnon et al., 2009)。
    研究最近顯示綠頭鴨(Anas platyrhynchos)被認為是高致病性禽流感病毒(HPAIV) (H5N1)的長距離傳染媒介,嚴重影響家禽養殖業和民眾健康。該病毒的傳播與遷徙路線和水禽感染情形,顯示他們很可能是媒介。實驗顯示,綠頭鴨是高致病性禽流感病毒(H5N1)最有可能的長途傳播者,因為他們的排泄物含病毒的比例比其他鴨子高,而他們似乎對其免疫,在歐洲和亞洲,高致病性禽流感病毒造成野生鳥類死亡。此外,他們分佈範圍極廣且數量龐大,幾乎存在每一類型的濕地,且對人類有高耐受性,為野生水禽、家畜和人類潛在的聯繫,因此成為致命的高致病性禽流感病毒的完美帶原者,雖然罕見人類感染,但受這種病毒感染的病人死亡率很高,若突變可能可以人對人傳染,而造成大流行的巨大威脅。
    此外,圈養的綠頭鴨可能會增加一些其他疾病的發病率,如鴨病毒腸炎(Duck Virus Enteritis (DVE))在野生種群(Keawcharoen, 2008; Weber and Stilianakis, 2007; AEWA, 2003)。
    最後,綠頭鴨高族群造成藻華、缺氧、水生濕地植物族群耗損過多,可能導致肉毒桿菌中毒(RSPB, 2008)。



         地點特有的影響:
    Australia English 
    雜交: Mallards hybridize with Australia native Pacific black duck (Anas superciliosa). In locations such as Lord Howe Island no pure populations of A. superciliosa remain (Tracey et al., 2008).
    India English 
    競爭: The mallard is believed to compete with native waterfowl in India (Williams, undated).
    New Zealand English 
    雜交: In New Zealand, Anas platyrhynchosis is deemed to have caused severe declines in populations of the native Pacific grey duck (see Anas superciliosa in IUCN Red List of Threatened Species) through genetic introgression. As agricultural regions are now largely dominated by the introduced mallard A. superciliosa has become increasingly restricted to undeveloped areas (Rhymer et al., 1994, 2004; BirdLife International 2004).
    South Africa English 
    雜交: Anas platyrhynchos hybridise with native Yellow-billed duck (A. undulata) in South Africa establishing a potential threat (AEWA, 2003).
    Western Cape (South Africa) English 
    雜交: Anas platyrhynchos hybridise with native Yellow-billed duck (A. undulata) in West Cape, South Africa where it is considered a major problem (AEWA, 2003).
    United States (USA) English 
    雜交: In North America, Anas platyrhynchos hybridizes with mottled ducks (Anas fulvigula), black ducks (Anas rubripes), and Pacific black ducks (Anas superciliosa) which have experienced decline believed to be a result of this hybridization. As a consequence of hybridisation with mottled ducks, releases of mallards have been prohibited in Florida (Kulikova, 2005; Muñoz-Fuentes, 2007; Rhymer et al., 1994; Snyder, 1993).
    Hawaii (United States (USA)) English 
    雜交: Anas platyrhynchos threatens the endemic 'Endangered (EN)' Hawaiian Duck (see Anas wyvilliana in IUCN Red List of Threatened Species). Hybridization between the mallard and Hawaiian duck have greatly depleted pure stocks of Hawaiian ducks to the point they face extinction if it continues



ISSG Landcare Research NBII IUCN University of Auckland