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   Pycnonotus jocosus (鳥類) English  français 
生態 分佈 管理 影響 參考資料 聯繫


         一般影響

    紅耳鵯(Pycnonotus jocosus)已被發現會損害經濟作物、與本土雀形目鳥類競爭並取代之、捕食特有種鳥類和節肢動物幼蟲、散播外來植物(Clergeau & Mandon-Dalger, 2001; Linnebjerg et al. 2009; Linnebjerg et al., in press)。在加州該物種嚴重損壞柑橘作物;在夏威夷瓦胡島,它會損耗經濟性水果和鮮花,如木瓜和蘭花;在佛羅里達州,留尼汪島和模里西斯,也記錄到紅耳鵯帶來農業損失;紅耳鵯使模里西斯原生特有種雀形目繡眼(Zosterops spp.)、Neophilia屬的蜘蛛、及壁虎的族群數量減少;在南佛羅里達它們會競爭其他鳥類遷徙和越冬的資源(Islam & Williams, 2000)。紅耳鵯也會散播外來入侵種植物,其中包括:馬斯克林群島的粗葉懸鈎子(Rubus alceifolius)、大破布子(Cordia interrupta)、毛野牡丹(Clidemia hirta)、馬纓丹(Lantana camara)、野煙樹(Solanum mauritianum)、巴西胡椒木(Schinus terebinthifolius)、草莓番石榴(Psidium cattleianum)、粗壯女貞(Ligustrum robustum)和潺槁木薑子(Litsea glutinosa) (Simberloff & Von Holle, 1999; Mandon-Dalger, 2004; Linnebjerg et al., in press);和佛羅里達州的巴西茉莉(Jasminum fluminense)、巴西胡椒木(Schinus terebinthifolius)、孟加拉榕(Ficus benghalensis)、和馬纓丹Lantana spp.(Carlton&Owre, 1975)。



         地點特有的影響:
    Mauritius English 
    與其他入侵物種相互作用: Pycnonotus jocosus is known to spread plant invasives and noxious weeds such as giant bramble (Rubus alceifolius), jujube tree (Cordia interrupta), Koster's curse (Clidemia hirta), largeleaf lantana (Lantana camara), bugweed (Solanum mauritianum), Brazilian peppertree (Schinus terebinthifolius), strawberry guava (Psidium cattleianum), and Indian laurel (Litsea glutinosa) in Mauritius (Simberloff, 1999; Mandon-Dalger, 2004).

    農業: Pyncnonotus jocosus is reported to damage crops in the Mascarenes Reunion and Mauritius (Clergeau & Mandon-Dalger, 2001).
    Assumption Island (Seychelles) English 
    威脅瀕危物種: The presence of Pycnonotus jocosus on Assumption presents a threat to the native bulbul, other landbirds and the ecological integrity of the UNESCO World Heritage of Aldabra Atoll, which is only 27km away (Beaver & Mougal 2010) and currently has no introduced birds.
    Dade County (United States (USA)) English 
    與其他入侵物種相互作用: Pycnonotus jocosus spreads plant invasives including: Brazilian jasmine (Jasminum fluminense), Brazilian peppertree (Schinus terebinthifolius), Bengal fig (Ficus benghalensis), and Lantana spp. in Florida (Carleton & Owre, 1975).

    農業: Pycnonotus jocosus is a threat to Florida's agriculture industry. They have been reported to damage mango, raspberry, and mulberry crops (Islam & Williams, 2000, Carleton & Owre, 1975). However, a study demonstrated that they were unable to consume whole oranges, mangos, and avocados because their mandibles were too small, although they could eat fruits that had been previously punctured (Carleton & Owre, 1975).
    Oahu Is. (United States (USA)) English 
    農業: Pycnonotus jocosus is reported to damage fruit orchards and flower nurseries (Islam & Williams, 2000).



ISSG Landcare Research NBII IUCN University of Auckland