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   Rhinella marina (=Bufo marinus) (兩棲動物) English  français   
生態 分佈 管理 影響 參考資料 聯繫


         一般影響

    雖然蔗蟾最有可能捕食夜晚時在地面活動的動物,但牠們有可能捕食任何陸生動物。(Hinkley 1962)。Covacevich and Archer(1975)在他們所發表有關蔗蟾對澳洲原生物種之影響的研究報告中指出,在蔗蟾的嘴中與腸道中發現過地毯蟒、黑頭蟒、死亡蝮蛇,以及其他蛇類的屍體。在澳洲的研究顯示,蔗蟾對原生的兩生類無尾目物種的群聚結構,有直接或間接的嚴重影響(Crossland, 2000),因此也成為澳洲原生物種生存上的威脅( Catling,P.C et al.2003)。

    蔗蟾被認為與關島蜥蜴族群的減少有關(Jackson 1962, Dryden 1965)。Pernetta and Watling(1978)認為蔗蟾與原生的蛙類並不會相互影響,因為牠們使用不同的棲地; 原生的蛙類不是分布於溪流的堤岸,便是分布於濃密森林的葉間。Villadolid(1956)在菲律賓群島蔗蟾的胃中發現有老鼠的屍體。Hinkley認為蔗蟾在經濟上的影響是「中性」的,因為牠們同時會捕食有害的與有益的無脊椎動物。

    當蔗蟾受到挑釁,或是局部收到施壓,例如捕食者咬住蔗蟾,其耳後腺會分泌毒液(NRM, 2001)。這種有毒的分泌物,會引起馴養動物,如狗、貓,以及野生動物,如蛇、蜥蜴等的不適或死亡。當蔗蟾受威脅時,可將毒液噴出超過1公尺遠(Lever, 2001),若接觸到眼睛,會產生劇烈疼痛(NRM, 2001)。曾有人類因食用蔗蟾或其卵而死亡的案例(Lever, 2001),其毒液對兒童也具有傷害。蔗蟾在城市地區也常常因為其吵雜叫聲,而造成人們的困擾。




         地點特有的影響:
    Hispaniola Is. (Atlantic Ocean) English 
    捕食: Bufo marinus are implicated in the decline of Hispaniola's amphibians.
    Maningrida (Australia) English 
    其他: There is concern that the predation of Bufo marinus on native species may affect the ability of the indigenous Aboriginal people to collect traditional food sources.

    捕食: Bufo marinus preys upon native animal species.
    Northern Territory (Australia) English 
    降低本地生物多樣性: Doody et al (2006) provided evidence of the direct impact of cane toads on the yellow-spotted monitor lizard (Varanus panoptes) and indirect impact on nest predation of the pig-nosed turtle (see Carettochelys insculpta in IUCN Red List of Threatened Species) eggs. The yellow-spotted monitor lizard and cane toads were surveyed for five years at two sites along the Daly River, Northern Territory, before and after the arrival of cane toads. Pig-nosed turtle nest predation was also surveyed for three years before, and one year after, the arrival of the toads. The authors conclude, "Collectively, our data and observations, combined with unpublished reports, indicate that: (1) cane toads arrived at our study sites during the wet seasons of 2003–04 and 2004–05; (2) the lizard V. panoptes readily succumbs to cane toad toxins; (3) V. panoptes has experienced a marked decline in relative population numbers coincident with the arrival of the toads at the site; and (4) V. panoptes has been reduced to such low numbers that it is currently no longer a significant predator of pig-nosed turtle (C. insculpta) eggs".
    Gordonvale (Australia) English 
    捕食: Bufo marinus preys upon native animal species.
    Bermuda English 
    威脅瀕危物種: Bufo marinus is implicated in decline of the 'Critically Endangered (CR)' Bermudian Skink (see Eumeces longirostris in IUCN Red List of Threatened Species) (Davenport et al., 2001 in Varnham, 2006).

    滋擾人類: Bufo marinus create nusiance by drowning in domestic water tanks and polluting water supply (Varnham, 2006).
    Dominican Republic English 
    捕食: Bufo marinuss are implicated in the decline of Hispaniola's amphibians.
    Grenada English 
    傳播疾病: Bufo marinus have been implicated as being reservoirs for the bacteria Leptospira interrogans, which causes Weil's disease (infectious jaundice) in humans.
    Guam English 
    降低本地生物多樣性: Bufo marinus have been implicated in the decline of populations of monitor lizards in Guam (Jackson 1962, Dryden 1965 in SPREP, 2000).
    Chichi-jima Is. (Japan) English 
    捕食: Predation upon the indigenous terrestrial fauna.

    棲地改變: Pollution of the freshwater supply by Bufo marinus eggs and tadpoles.
    Iriomotejima Is. (Japan) English 
    其他: Iriomote cats (Prionailurus iriomotensis) may possibly be poisoned when trying to eat Bufo marinus.
    Montserrat English 
    降低本地生物多樣性: Bufo marinus may compete with, predate or poison native frog (possesses numerous poison glands). It is also likely to heavily predate upon native invertebrates (Daltry et al., undated in Varnham, 2006).
    Buka Is. (PNG) (Papua New Guinea) English 
    其他: Indigenous predators (snakes and the water monitor) are poisoned when trying to eat Bufo marinus.
    Philippines English 
    捕食: Villadolid (1956) found rats and mice in stomachs of Bufo marinus in the Philippine Islands.
    Gavutu Is. (Solomon Islands) English 
    其他: Indigenous predators (snakes and the water monitor) are poisoned when trying to eat Bufo marinus.
    Guadalcanal Is. (Solomon Islands) English 
    其他: Indigenous predators (snakes and the water monitor) are poisoned when trying to eat Bufo marinus.
    Malaita Is. (Solomon Islands) English 
    其他: Indigenous predators (snakes and the water monitor) are poisoned when trying to eat Bufo marinus.
    Banika Is. (Solomon Islands) English 
    其他: Indigenous predators (snakes and the water monitor) are poisoned when trying to eat Bufo marinus.
    Vanikoro Is. (Solomon Islands) English 
    其他: Indigenous predators (snakes and the water monitor) are poisoned when trying to eat Bufo marinus.



ISSG Landcare Research NBII IUCN University of Auckland