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   Rhinella marina (=Bufo marinus) (两栖动物) English  français   
生态 分布 管理 影响 参考数据 联系


         一般影响

    虽然蔗蟾最有可能捕食夜晚时在地面活动的动物,但牠们有可能捕食任何陆生动物。(Hinkley 1962) 。Covacevich and Archer (1975)在他们所发表有关蔗蟾对澳洲原生物种之影响的研究报告中指出,在蔗蟾的嘴中与肠道中发现过地毯蟒、黑头蟒、死亡蝮蛇,以及其它蛇类的尸体。在澳洲的研究显示,蔗蟾对原生的两生类无尾目物种的群聚结构,有直接或间接的严重影响(Crossland, 2000),因此也成为澳洲原生物种生存上的威胁( Catling,P.C et al.2003)。

    蔗蟾被认为与关岛蜥蜴族群的减少有关 (Jackson 1962, Dryden 1965)。Pernetta and Watling (1978) 认为蔗蟾与原生的蛙类并不会相互影响,因为牠们使用不同的栖地; 原生的蛙类不是分布于溪流的堤岸,便是分布于浓密森林的叶间。Villadolid (1956) 在菲律宾群岛蔗蟾的胃中发现有老鼠的尸体。Hinkley认为蔗蟾在经济上的影响是「中性」的,因为牠们同时会捕食有害的与有益的无脊椎动物。

    当蔗蟾受到挑衅,或是局部收到施压,例如捕食者咬住蔗蟾,其耳后腺会分泌毒液 (NRM, 2001)。这种有毒的分泌物,会引起驯养动物,如狗、猫,以及野生动物,如蛇、蜥蜴等的不适或死亡。当蔗蟾受威胁时,可将毒液喷出超过1公尺远 (Lever, 2001),若接触到眼睛,会产生剧烈疼痛 (NRM, 2001)。曾有人类因食用蔗蟾或其卵而死亡的案例 (Lever, 2001),其毒液对儿童也具有伤害。蔗蟾在城市地区也常常因为其吵杂叫声,而造成人们的困扰。




         地点特有的影响:
    Hispaniola Is. (Atlantic Ocean) English 
    捕食: Bufo marinus are implicated in the decline of Hispaniola's amphibians.
    Maningrida (Australia) English 
    其它: There is concern that the predation of Bufo marinus on native species may affect the ability of the indigenous Aboriginal people to collect traditional food sources.

    捕食: Bufo marinus preys upon native animal species.
    Northern Territory (Australia) English 
    降低本地生物多样性: Doody et al (2006) provided evidence of the direct impact of cane toads on the yellow-spotted monitor lizard (Varanus panoptes) and indirect impact on nest predation of the pig-nosed turtle (see Carettochelys insculpta in IUCN Red List of Threatened Species) eggs. The yellow-spotted monitor lizard and cane toads were surveyed for five years at two sites along the Daly River, Northern Territory, before and after the arrival of cane toads. Pig-nosed turtle nest predation was also surveyed for three years before, and one year after, the arrival of the toads. The authors conclude, "Collectively, our data and observations, combined with unpublished reports, indicate that: (1) cane toads arrived at our study sites during the wet seasons of 2003–04 and 2004–05; (2) the lizard V. panoptes readily succumbs to cane toad toxins; (3) V. panoptes has experienced a marked decline in relative population numbers coincident with the arrival of the toads at the site; and (4) V. panoptes has been reduced to such low numbers that it is currently no longer a significant predator of pig-nosed turtle (C. insculpta) eggs".
    Gordonvale (Australia) English 
    捕食: Bufo marinus preys upon native animal species.
    Bermuda English 
    威胁濒危物种: Bufo marinus is implicated in decline of the 'Critically Endangered (CR)' Bermudian Skink (see Eumeces longirostris in IUCN Red List of Threatened Species) (Davenport et al., 2001 in Varnham, 2006).

    滋扰人类: Bufo marinus create nusiance by drowning in domestic water tanks and polluting water supply (Varnham, 2006).
    Dominican Republic English 
    捕食: Bufo marinuss are implicated in the decline of Hispaniola's amphibians.
    Grenada English 
    传播疾病: Bufo marinus have been implicated as being reservoirs for the bacteria Leptospira interrogans, which causes Weil's disease (infectious jaundice) in humans.
    Guam English 
    降低本地生物多样性: Bufo marinus have been implicated in the decline of populations of monitor lizards in Guam (Jackson 1962, Dryden 1965 in SPREP, 2000).
    Chichi-jima Is. (Japan) English 
    捕食: Predation upon the indigenous terrestrial fauna.

    栖地改变: Pollution of the freshwater supply by Bufo marinus eggs and tadpoles.
    Iriomotejima Is. (Japan) English 
    其它: Iriomote cats (Prionailurus iriomotensis) may possibly be poisoned when trying to eat Bufo marinus.
    Montserrat English 
    降低本地生物多样性: Bufo marinus may compete with, predate or poison native frog (possesses numerous poison glands). It is also likely to heavily predate upon native invertebrates (Daltry et al., undated in Varnham, 2006).
    Buka Is. (PNG) (Papua New Guinea) English 
    其它: Indigenous predators (snakes and the water monitor) are poisoned when trying to eat Bufo marinus.
    Philippines English 
    捕食: Villadolid (1956) found rats and mice in stomachs of Bufo marinus in the Philippine Islands.
    Gavutu Is. (Solomon Islands) English 
    其它: Indigenous predators (snakes and the water monitor) are poisoned when trying to eat Bufo marinus.
    Guadalcanal Is. (Solomon Islands) English 
    其它: Indigenous predators (snakes and the water monitor) are poisoned when trying to eat Bufo marinus.
    Malaita Is. (Solomon Islands) English 
    其它: Indigenous predators (snakes and the water monitor) are poisoned when trying to eat Bufo marinus.
    Banika Is. (Solomon Islands) English 
    其它: Indigenous predators (snakes and the water monitor) are poisoned when trying to eat Bufo marinus.
    Vanikoro Is. (Solomon Islands) English 
    其它: Indigenous predators (snakes and the water monitor) are poisoned when trying to eat Bufo marinus.



ISSG Landcare Research NBII IUCN University of Auckland