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   Oncorhynchus mykiss (鱼类) English  français   
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         一般影响

    影响包括杂交,疾病传播,捕食和与本地物种竞争。。
    在美国,把虹鳟鱼从原生地引入其它地区,会造成问题,因为他们会与本地鲑鱼杂交,影响其遗传完整性。一些鱼种,例如克拉克鳟(Oncorhynchus clarkisubsp 1.) 因此事实上已经灭绝了。其它受杂交影响的鱼种,包括拉昂坦鳟鱼 ( O. clarki henshawi); 金的鳟鱼;( O. aquabonita) redband 鳟鱼 ( O. mykisssubsp.); 吉拉河鳟鱼 (请参阅O. gilae在 IUCN 红皮书 ) 与亚历桑那州鳟鱼 (请参阅O. apache在 IUCN 红皮书 ).(Fuller, 2000)
    旋转病是一种由原生动物( Myxobolus cerebralis) 引起的疾病,会使鲑鱼的神经系统功能障碍,并可能导致脊柱弯曲。结果会使鱼失去保持正确方向的能力,使他们游泳时一直旋转。(McDowall, 1990) 孵化场饲养的鳟鱼流放到野外造成这种疾病在美国爆发,使野生鱼类的族群受到威胁。(Fuller, 2000).被引入虹鳟的在许多国家的
    已经报告对本土鱼、两栖动物与无脊椎动物产生负面影响。在纽西兰,有人怀疑,虹鳟经由直接捕食和竞争觅食区影响本地鱼种,而在美国也有证据显示,相同的情形也发生在例如驼背鲢鱼 (请参阅Gila cypha在 IUCN 红皮书 ),suckers, 与 squawfish。(Fuller, 2000).



         地点特有的影响:
    Japan English 
    竞争: Introductions of non-native fishes can lead to the decline or extinction of native species through interspecific interactions (Moyle and Light 1996, in Hasegawa and Maekawa 2006). In particular, many species of salmonids have been introduced into streams throughout the world, primarily for recreational fishing (Fausch 1988, in Hasegawa and Maekawa 2006). Closely related native and introduced salmonids have not coevolved to partition niches, thus interspecific competition can often occur between such species (Krueger and May 1991, in Hasegawa and Maekawa 2006).
    Using an artificial stream, habitat use by two sympatric native salmonids in the presence and absence of introduced salmonid species was investigated experimentally. When only native white-spotted charr Salvelinus leucomaenis and masu salmon Oncorhynchus masou were sympatric, they occupied different microhabitats. In the presence of introduced brown trout Salmo trutta or rainbow trout O. mykiss, however, white-spotted charr and masu salmon were observed to use a similar habitat and interspecific competition between white-spotted charr and masu salmon was initiated. The study suggested that the coexistence of native salmonids was negatively affected through interspecific competition between native and introduced salmonids.
    Poland English 
    竞争: Several species of the salmon family and Rheophilous cyprinids are reportedly affected. The scale of impact of this species is weak.
    Yosemite National Park (United States (USA)) English 
    降低本地生物多样性: A study (Knapp, 2004), which used data collected during a census of native herpetofauna, non-native trout, and habitat characteristics at all lentic water bodies in Yosemite National Park, was undertaken to quantify the effect of trout introductions and habitat on the distribution of four amphibian species and two reptile species. Non-native trout which occupied 56% of habitats deeper than 4m were observed in 245 of the 2655 surveyed water bodies (9%). Gill net surveys indicated that brook trout (Salvelinus fontinalis) and rainbow trout (O. mykiss) were by far the most common fish species, with brown trout (Salmo trutta), golden trout (O. mykiss aguabonita), rainbow trout x golden trout hybrids, and Lahontan cutthroat trout (O. clarki henshawi) found only rarely (3 lakes each). The only other fish species encountered during the survey was an introduced population of Sacramento sucker (Catostomus occidentalis) detected at a single site.

    The results of the current study provide strong evidence that in Yosemite National Park, introduced trout have profoundly altered the distribution of two mountain yellow-legged frog (see Rana muscosa in IUCN Red List of Threatened Species) and Pacific treefrog (Hyla regilla) of the four native aquatic-breeding amphibians (the other two being Yosemite toad (see Bufo canorus in IUCN Red List of Threatened Species) and Sierra newt (Taricha torosa sierrae) and both of the widely distributed garter snake species. Mountain garter snake (Thamnophis elegans elegans) and the Sierra garter snake (Thamnophis couchi couchi).




ISSG Landcare Research NBII IUCN University of Auckland