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   Myiopsitta monachus (鳥類) English 
生態 分佈 管理 影響 參考資料 聯繫


         一般影響

    在其原生地,和尚鸚鵡(Myiopsitta monachus)被認為是一種嚴重的農業害鳥,常造成作物和果園損害,也有報告指出他們築巢時造成電線短路,在其入侵區域,造成的主要影響是築巢行為。和尚鸚鵡在通訊塔和配電和輸電塔等電力設施上面建築龐大的巢。在通訊塔上僅造成維護的問題,不影響通信,然而在電力設備上築巢可能會導致停電和火災,因為巨大的巢會阻斷電路,此問題在天氣潮濕更嚴重。和尚鸚鵡的巢會嚴重影響電力公司,包括電力下降、設備損壞、減少收入和築巢造成停電,巢穴清除和損害修復等運營和維護費用提高以及公眾安全問題(Newman et al, 2004)。和尚鸚鵡引起的相關費用可能相當可觀,例如,2001年在南佛羅里達州為期5個月的記錄,有198次電力中斷與和尚鸚鵡有關,損失的電力銷售收入約24,000美元,停機維修費用估計為 221,000美元(Newman et al, 2004)。然而,在其入侵區域和尚鸚鵡並沒有造成農損,亦沒有任何確鑿的證據,對原生動植物造成負面影響。和尚鸚鵡有可能會將感染物質帶到未感染植株,造成植物病蟲害的蔓延,例如,在佛羅里達州的柑橘潰瘍病是嚴重的問題(Newman et al, 2004),有人猜測,和尚鸚鵡城市族群的不斷增長可能成為周邊地區的種源,和尚鸚鵡城市中是廣受喜愛的野生動物(Campbell, 2000)。Fitzwater(1988)也指出:“在南美洲他除了是果樹的害鳥,也非常可能傳播新城禽疫;它們也會折斷觀賞樹木的樹枝及嫩芽;它們是非常吵鬧的鳥"。



         地點特有的影響:
    Argentina English 
    經濟 /民生: In Argentina, monk parakeets have been reported to cause over US$1 billion per year in crop damage; mostly corn and sunflower (Spreyer & Bucher, 1998). The authors also observe that the bird's reputation as an agricultural pest seems to be overstated.
    Grand Cayman (Cayman Islands) English 
    滋擾人類: The monk parakeet builds large stick nests in electricity transmission lines (Burton, 2003 in Varnham, 2006).
    Chile English 
    農業: A major negative impact of the monk parakeet in Chile is claimed to be damage to fruit and ornamental trees (Iriarte et al 2005).
    United States (USA) English 
    其他: Monk parakeets cause substantial damage through their nest building activities The monk parakeet is the only parrot species to construct its own nest, which is a large, bulky structure of sticks and branches used both for breeding and roosting. Many of the nest structures are built in electric utility substations and on support structures for distribution and transmission lines (Bucher and Martín 1987; Marone et al, 1992; van Doorn 1997; Avery et al, 2002; Tillman et al, 2004 in Yoder et al, 2007). Nesting materials can cause short circuits directly by arcing power structures, and other outages occur when parakeets, or predators attracted by parakeet nesting activity, are electrocuted (Yoder et al, 2007). Currently through their intererence with the operation of industrial activities from nesting monk parakeets affect agriculture, the communication industry and the electric utility industry (Newman et al, 2004).

    農業: In South America, monk parakeets cause an estimated 2 to 45 percent loss on agricultural and orchard crops
    Florida (USA) (United States (USA)) English 
    傳播疾病: There is the possibility that monk parakeets could spread diseases such as citrus canker by transporting infected plant material to uninfected trees (Newman et al, 2004).



ISSG Landcare Research NBII IUCN University of Auckland