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   Carpobrotus edulis (肉質植物) English   
生態 分佈 管理 影響 參考資料 聯繫


         一般影響

    莫邪菊(Carpobrotus edulis)會形成密實的植墊,寬可達20公分,深度可達 50公分以上,有時會積極與本地物種競爭(德安東尼和邁哈勒 1991,德安東尼, 1993;PIER, 2005)。一旦建立族群,它會展現很高的營養繁殖率,其生長幾乎不會受到取食或競爭影響(德安東尼 1993;坎佩盧等人, 1999)。莫邪菊還會降低物種多樣性,防止沙子流動,阻礙了自然干擾過程和沙丘的環境變化(金)。莫邪菊會降低土壤pH值和影響養分動態(德安東尼, 1990a,德安東尼奧和邁哈勒, 1991)。在美國加州大火之後,莫邪菊已入侵到新的地方(Zedler和沙伊德1988;德安東尼等人, 1993)。在許多引入區,莫邪菊會與其相關物種雜交(原生種,歸化種,外來種)(奇諾克, 1972;維拉與德安東尼, 1998,阿爾貝等人, 1997; Suehs等人, 2004a;加拉格爾等人, 1997),這可能加劇入侵過程(Suehs等人, 2004a)或影響本地物種的完整性。



         地點特有的影響:
    France English 
    與其他入侵物種相互作用: Rats and rabbits are the primary seed dispersers of Carpobrotus sp. on offshore islands in southeast France. In return Carpobrotus provides a water and energy rich food for the rats and rabbits during the dry season, indicating a clear case of mutualism between the invaders (Bourgeois et al. 2005).

    There are concerns that hybridisation between Carpobrotus edulis and the also invasive C. acinaciformis in the Mediterranean region may lead to intensified invasion (Suehs et al. 2004a).
    降低本地生物多樣性: Carpobrotus edulis may induce severe local extinctions of native plants which are endemic, rare or protected species in Mediterranean France (Suehs et al. 1999).

    雜交: Carpobrotus edulis hybridises with C. acinaciformis in France. The hybrid exhibits aggressive growth and threatens some native species such as Limonium spp. (Vila et al. 2000).

    Corse (France) English 
    與其他入侵物種相互作用: Hybridisation between Carpobrotus edulis and C. acinaciformis in the Mediterranean region may lead to intensified invasion (Suehs et al. 2004a).

    降低本地生物多樣性: Carpobrotus edulis may induce severe local extinctions of native plants which are endemic, rare or protected species in Corsica (Suehs et al. 1999).
    Provence-Alpes-Cote d'Azur (France) English 
    與其他入侵物種相互作用: Hybridisation between Carpobrotus edulis and C. acinaciformis in the Mediterranean region may lead to intensified invasion (Suehs et al. 2004a).

    降低本地生物多樣性: Carpobrotus edulis may induce severe local extinctions of native plants which are endemic, rare or protected species in Mediterranean France (Suehs et al. 1999).
    Bagaud Is. (France) English 
    與其他入侵物種相互作用: Hybridisation between Carpobrotus edulis and C. acinaciformis in the Mediterranean region may lead to intensified invasion (Suehs et al. 2004a).
    Hyeres archipelago (France) English 
    與其他入侵物種相互作用: Hybridisation between Carpobrotus edulis and C. acinaciformis in the Mediterranean region may lead to intensified invasion (Suehs et al. 2004a).
    Gibraltar English 
    棲地改變: Carpobrotus carpobrotus x edulis is problematic in littoral areas (Cortes, 2004 in Varnham, 2006) and has a particularly adverse effect on parts of the east sand slopes and on cliffs in the south west littoral (Cortes and Abrines, 1994 in Varnham, 2006).

    競爭: Carpobrotus carpobrotus x edulis replaces and excludes native flora once ot has formed a 'reasonably sized' patch (Perez and Bensusan, undated in Varnham, 2006).
    Guernsey English 
    競爭: Carpobrotus edulis suppresses native coastal grassland vegetation (David, 2003 in Varnham, 2006).
    New Zealand English 
    雜交: Carpobrotus edulis hybridises with the endemic Disphyma australe in New Zealand, forming highly sterile triploids (Chinnock, 1972).
    Portugal English 
    生態系統變化: Carpobrotus edulis affects the natural succession and ecological processes of sand dunes in Portugal by changing species composition (Campelo et al. 1999).
    Reserva Natural das Berlengas (Portugal) English 
    生態系統變化: Carpobrotus edulis has established a monospecific cover that obstructs the occurrence of the autochthone vegetation of the Reserva Natural das Berlengas off the coast of Portugal.
    Berlenga is. (Portugal) English 
    生態系統變化: Carpobrotus edulis has established a monospecific cover that obstructs the occurrence of the autochthone vegetation of the Reserva Natural das Berlengas off the coast of Portugal.
    Spain English 
    競爭: Carpobrotus edulis competes with endemic plants in Spain such as the protected Limonium emarginatum, which it replaces at higher topographical levels in populations settled on both coastal dunes and cliffs (Garzon et al. 2006).q
    Cabrera (Spain) English 
    生態系統變化: Carpobrotus edulis has become an invasive plant in the Balearic Islands, colonising rocky and dunar littoral, and displacing native plants.
    Formentera is. (Spain) English 
    生態系統變化: Carpobrotus edulis has become an invasive plant in the Balearic Islands, colonising rocky and dunar littoral, and displacing native plants.
    Ibiza is. (Spain) English 
    生態系統變化: Carpobrotus edulis has become an invasive plant in the Balearic Islands, colonising rocky and dunar littoral, and displacing native plants.
    Mallorca Is. (Spain) English 
    生態系統變化: Carpobrotus edulis has become an invasive plant in the Balearic Islands, colonising rocky and dunar littoral, and displacing native plants.
    Minorca Is. (Spain) English 
    生態系統變化: Carpobrotus edulis has become an invasive plant in the Balearic Islands, colonising rocky and dunar littoral, and displacing native plants (IUCN, 2006).

    競爭: Apium bermejoi, an endangered species endemic to the Balearic Islands (see Apium bermejoi in IUCN Red List of Threatened Species) is threatened by competition from Carpobrotus edulis in the Balearic Isles, Spain (IUCN, 2006).
    San Francisco Bay (Estuary) (United States (USA)) English 
    生態系統變化: Carpobrotus edulis may be having a substantial impact on the high tidal marsh-upland ecotone community in the San Francisco Estuary, California, USA (Grossinger et al. 1998).
    Santa Barbara (California) (United States (USA)) English 
    競爭: Carpobrotus edulis competes with native flora on arrested beach dunes, adjacent ocean bluffs and sandy mesas around Vandenberg Air Force Base, Pt. Conception and other localities in Santa Barbara County, California, USA (Schmalzer and Hinkle, 1987).
    California (United States (USA)) English 
    雜交: Carpobrotus edulis hybridises with the native or naturalised C. chilensis in virtually all areas of sympatry in California. Intermediate plants have been shown to be more similar to C. edulis than C. chilensis, and have been shown to have fewer native plants growing in association with them than C. chilensis (Albert et al., 1997). Hybrid individuals can show higher clonal growth than parental types in some habitats (Vila and D’Antonio 1998c).



ISSG Landcare Research NBII IUCN University of Auckland