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   Carpobrotus edulis (肉质植物) English   
生态 分布 管理 影响 参考数据 联系


         一般影响

    莫邪菊(Carpobrotus edulis)会形成密实的植垫,宽可达20公分,深度可达 50公分以上,有时会积极与本地物种竞争(德安东尼和迈哈勒 1991,德安东尼, 1993;PIER, 2005)。一旦建立族群,它会展现很高的营养繁殖率,其生长几乎不会受到取食或竞争影响(德安东尼 1993;坎佩卢等人, 1999)。莫邪菊还会降低物种多样性,防止沙子流动,阻碍了自然干扰过程和沙丘的环境变化(金)。莫邪菊会降低土壤pH值和影响养分动态(德安东尼, 1990a,德安东尼奥和迈哈勒, 1991)。在美国加州大火之后,莫邪菊已入侵到新的地方(Zedler和沙伊德1988;德安东尼等人, 1993)。在许多引入区,莫邪菊会与其相关物种杂交(原生种,归化种,外来种)(奇诺克, 1972;维拉与德安东尼, 1998,阿尔贝等人, 1997; Suehs等人, 2004a;加拉格尔等人, 1997),这可能加剧入侵过程(Suehs等人, 2004a)或影响本地物种的完整性。



         地点特有的影响:
    France English 
    与其它入侵物种相互作用: Rats and rabbits are the primary seed dispersers of Carpobrotus sp. on offshore islands in southeast France. In return Carpobrotus provides a water and energy rich food for the rats and rabbits during the dry season, indicating a clear case of mutualism between the invaders (Bourgeois et al. 2005).

    There are concerns that hybridisation between Carpobrotus edulis and the also invasive C. acinaciformis in the Mediterranean region may lead to intensified invasion (Suehs et al. 2004a).
    杂交: Carpobrotus edulis hybridises with C. acinaciformis in France. The hybrid exhibits aggressive growth and threatens some native species such as Limonium spp. (Vila et al. 2000).

    降低本地生物多样性: Carpobrotus edulis may induce severe local extinctions of native plants which are endemic, rare or protected species in Mediterranean France (Suehs et al. 1999).

    Corse (France) English 
    与其它入侵物种相互作用: Hybridisation between Carpobrotus edulis and C. acinaciformis in the Mediterranean region may lead to intensified invasion (Suehs et al. 2004a).

    降低本地生物多样性: Carpobrotus edulis may induce severe local extinctions of native plants which are endemic, rare or protected species in Corsica (Suehs et al. 1999).
    Provence-Alpes-Cote d'Azur (France) English 
    与其它入侵物种相互作用: Hybridisation between Carpobrotus edulis and C. acinaciformis in the Mediterranean region may lead to intensified invasion (Suehs et al. 2004a).

    降低本地生物多样性: Carpobrotus edulis may induce severe local extinctions of native plants which are endemic, rare or protected species in Mediterranean France (Suehs et al. 1999).
    Bagaud Is. (France) English 
    与其它入侵物种相互作用: Hybridisation between Carpobrotus edulis and C. acinaciformis in the Mediterranean region may lead to intensified invasion (Suehs et al. 2004a).
    Hyeres archipelago (France) English 
    与其它入侵物种相互作用: Hybridisation between Carpobrotus edulis and C. acinaciformis in the Mediterranean region may lead to intensified invasion (Suehs et al. 2004a).
    Gibraltar English 
    栖地改变: Carpobrotus carpobrotus x edulis is problematic in littoral areas (Cortes, 2004 in Varnham, 2006) and has a particularly adverse effect on parts of the east sand slopes and on cliffs in the south west littoral (Cortes and Abrines, 1994 in Varnham, 2006).

    竞争: Carpobrotus carpobrotus x edulis replaces and excludes native flora once ot has formed a 'reasonably sized' patch (Perez and Bensusan, undated in Varnham, 2006).
    Guernsey English 
    竞争: Carpobrotus edulis suppresses native coastal grassland vegetation (David, 2003 in Varnham, 2006).
    New Zealand English 
    杂交: Carpobrotus edulis hybridises with the endemic Disphyma australe in New Zealand, forming highly sterile triploids (Chinnock, 1972).
    Portugal English 
    生态系统变化: Carpobrotus edulis affects the natural succession and ecological processes of sand dunes in Portugal by changing species composition (Campelo et al. 1999).
    Reserva Natural das Berlengas (Portugal) English 
    生态系统变化: Carpobrotus edulis has established a monospecific cover that obstructs the occurrence of the autochthone vegetation of the Reserva Natural das Berlengas off the coast of Portugal.
    Berlenga is. (Portugal) English 
    生态系统变化: Carpobrotus edulis has established a monospecific cover that obstructs the occurrence of the autochthone vegetation of the Reserva Natural das Berlengas off the coast of Portugal.
    Spain English 
    竞争: Carpobrotus edulis competes with endemic plants in Spain such as the protected Limonium emarginatum, which it replaces at higher topographical levels in populations settled on both coastal dunes and cliffs (Garzon et al. 2006).q
    Cabrera (Spain) English 
    生态系统变化: Carpobrotus edulis has become an invasive plant in the Balearic Islands, colonising rocky and dunar littoral, and displacing native plants.
    Formentera is. (Spain) English 
    生态系统变化: Carpobrotus edulis has become an invasive plant in the Balearic Islands, colonising rocky and dunar littoral, and displacing native plants.
    Ibiza is. (Spain) English 
    生态系统变化: Carpobrotus edulis has become an invasive plant in the Balearic Islands, colonising rocky and dunar littoral, and displacing native plants.
    Mallorca Is. (Spain) English 
    生态系统变化: Carpobrotus edulis has become an invasive plant in the Balearic Islands, colonising rocky and dunar littoral, and displacing native plants.
    Minorca Is. (Spain) English 
    生态系统变化: Carpobrotus edulis has become an invasive plant in the Balearic Islands, colonising rocky and dunar littoral, and displacing native plants (IUCN, 2006).

    竞争: Apium bermejoi, an endangered species endemic to the Balearic Islands (see Apium bermejoi in IUCN Red List of Threatened Species) is threatened by competition from Carpobrotus edulis in the Balearic Isles, Spain (IUCN, 2006).
    San Francisco Bay (Estuary) (United States (USA)) English 
    生态系统变化: Carpobrotus edulis may be having a substantial impact on the high tidal marsh-upland ecotone community in the San Francisco Estuary, California, USA (Grossinger et al. 1998).
    Santa Barbara (California) (United States (USA)) English 
    竞争: Carpobrotus edulis competes with native flora on arrested beach dunes, adjacent ocean bluffs and sandy mesas around Vandenberg Air Force Base, Pt. Conception and other localities in Santa Barbara County, California, USA (Schmalzer and Hinkle, 1987).
    California (United States (USA)) English 
    杂交: Carpobrotus edulis hybridises with the native or naturalised C. chilensis in virtually all areas of sympatry in California. Intermediate plants have been shown to be more similar to C. edulis than C. chilensis, and have been shown to have fewer native plants growing in association with them than C. chilensis (Albert et al., 1997). Hybrid individuals can show higher clonal growth than parental types in some habitats (Vila and D’Antonio 1998c).



ISSG Landcare Research NBII IUCN University of Auckland