Taxonomic name: Micropterus salmoides (Lacepede, 1802)
Synonyms: Aplites salmoides (Lacepède, 1802), Grystes megastoma Garlick, 1857, Huro nigricans Cuvier, 1828, Huro salmoides (Lacepède, 1802), Labrus salmoides Lacepède, 1802, Micropterus salmoides (Lacepède, 1802), Perca nigricans (Cuvier, 1828)
Common names: achigã (Portuguese), achigan (French), achigan à grande bouche (French), American black bass (English), bas dehanbozorg (Farsi), bas wielkogeby (Poland), bass (English), bass wielkgebowy (Polish), biban cu gura mare (Romanian), black bass (English), bolsherotnyi amerikanskii tscherny okun (Russian), bol'sherotyi chernyi okun' (Russian), buraku basu (Japanese), fekete sügér (Hungarian), forelbaars (Dutch), forellenbarsch (German), green bass (English), green trout (English), großmäuliger Schwarzbarsch (German), huro (Spanish), isobassi (Finnish), khorshid Mahi Baleh Kuchak (Farsi), lakseabbor (Norwegian), largemouth bass (English), largemouth black bass (English), lobina negra (Spanish-Mexico), lobina-truche (Dominican Republic), northern largemouth bass (English-Canada), okounek pstruhový (Czech), okuchibasu (Japanese), Öringsaborre (Swedish), Ørredaborre (Danish), ostracka (Czech), ostracka lososovitá (Slovak), perca Americana (Spanish), perche d'Amérique (French), perche noire (French), perche truite (French), persico trota (Italian), stormundet black bass (Danish), stormundet ørredaborre (Danish), tam suy lo ue (Cantonese), zwarte baars (Dutch)
Organism type: fish
Micropterus salmoides (bass) has been widely introduced throughout the world due to its appeal as a sport fish and for its tasty flesh. In some places introduced Micropterus salmoides have affected populations of small native fish through predation, sometimes resulting in the their decline or extinction. Its diet includes fish, crayfish, amphibians and insects.
Dorsal spines (total): 10-10; Dorsal soft rays (total): 12-14; Anal spines: 3-3; Anal soft rays: 10-12; Vertebrae: 30-32. Mouth large; maxillary extending beyond the eye. Pelvic fins not joined by a membrane. Green to olive dorsally, milk-white to yellow ventrally, with a black band running from the operculum to the base of the caudal fin. Caudal fin rounded. Caudal fin with 17 rays ." (FishBase, 2003)
lakes, water courses
Inhabits clear, vegetated lakes, ponds, swamps. Also in backwaters and pools of creeks and rivers. Prefers quiet, clear water and over-grown banks." (FishBase, 2003). Largemouth bass are highly adaptable fish, able to thrive in virtually every warm-water habitat, from small creeks to large rivers to huge reservoirs. About the only thing that limits them is cold annual water temperatures (<10C) or low pH (<6), both of which presumably inhibit reproduction, since adults can survive in both habitats, but populations will not persist.
Introduced bass usually affect populations of small native fishes through predation, sometimes resulting in the decline or extinction of such species (Minckley 1973, in Fuller, 1999). Studies have shown that largemouth bass are capable of displacing native species, even predatory species such as northern pike.(USGS-CERC, 2004)
Fisheries; minor commercial, aquaculture; commercial, gamefish, aquarium: show aquarium. (FishBase, 2003)
Micropterus salmoides is the most popular game fish in the United States; a recreational fishery that is worth millions of dollars. Preyed upon by herons, bitterns, and kingfishers. Excellent food fish ." (FishBase, 2003)
Native range: St. Lawrence and Great Lakes, Hudson Bay (Red River), and Mississippi River basins from southern Quebec to Minnesota and south to the Gulf; Atlantic Slope drainages from North Carolina to Florida; Gulf Slope drainages from southern Florida into northern Mexico (Page and Burr 1991, in Fuller, 1999).
Known introduced range: UK, Europe, Russia, Middle East, North Africa, Continental US, Caribbean territories, South America, Asia, Southeast Asia, Hawai‘i, Mauritius, Madagascar, Fiji, Guam, New Caledonia and the US Virgin Islands. (FishBase, 2003)
Introduction pathways to new locations
Aquaculture: This species has been an important sport fish for many years and as such has been stocked widely in areas where it is nonindigenous. (Fuller, 1999)
Other: Fishing and Angling
Food habits of Micropterus salmoides are very diverse, but mainly consist of fish or invertebrates. Sometimes cannibalistic. Does not feed during spawning; as well as when the water temperature is below 5°C and above 37°C ( FishBase, 2003). Well-known communities involve either LMB and bluegill (Lepomis machrochirus) or LMB and shad (Dorosoma spp). Much work has been done on the dynamics of these two communties. The LMB-BG communities tend to be more in the northern natural lakes, whereas the LMB-shad communities are more common in large southern reservoirs.
The male which becomes aggressive and territorial builds the nest on muddy bottoms of shallow water. A female may spawn with several males on different nests. The male guards and fans the eggs. (FishBase, 2003)
Spawning takes place spring to summer or when temperature reaches 15°C. Adults mate between the age of 5-12 years (FishBase, 2003).
This species has been nominated as among 100 of the "World's Worst" invaders
Reviewed by: Dr. Steve Sammons M. Department of Fisheries and Aquaculture, Auburn University. USA
Compiled by: IUCN/SSC Invasive Species Specialist Group (ISSG)
Last Modified: Tuesday, 11 April 2006