Global Invasive Species Database 100 of the worst Donations home
Standard Search Standard Search Taxonomic Search   Index Search

   Cryptostegia grandiflora (vine, climber)  français     
Ecology Distribution Management
Info
Impact
Info
References
and Links
Contacts


      Cryptostegia grandiflora (Photo:  Albert C. Perdeck, Arnhem, The Netherlands) - Click for full size   Cryptostegia grandiflora (Photo: Harry Evans, CABI BioScience) - Click for full size   Cryptostegia grandiflora on the roadside (Photo: Geoffrey Howard) - Click for full size   Cryptostegia grandiflora growing on Parkinsonia aculeata (Photo: Geoffrey Howard) - Click for full size   Cryptostegia grandiflora on the roadside (Photo: Geoffrey Howard) - Click for full size   Cryptostegia grandiflora as a self-supporting vine (Photo: Geoffrey Howard) - Click for full size   Effects of Cryptostegia grandiflora in Australia (Photo: Ian Purvis, DNR&M) - Click for full size   Cryptostegia grandiflora (Photo: Forest & Kim Starr (USGS)) - Click for full size
    Taxonomic name: Cryptostegia grandiflora (Roxb. ex R. Br.) R. Br.
    Synonyms: Nerium grandiflorum Roxb. ex R. Br.
    Common names: caucho de la India (Spanish-Galapagos), India rubber vine (English), liane de gatope (French- New Caledonia), palay rubber vine (English), purple allamanda (English), rubber vine (English)
    Organism type: vine, climber
    Cryptostegia grandiflora is a self supporting, many-stemmed vine that is capable of growing over trees up to 15m high, smothering and pulling them down. It occurs in dry and moist forests in disturbed situations where there is temporary or permanent water, such as in rainforest openings and along roadsides. C. grandiflora is poisonous to stock when consumed and it forms impenetrable thickets that may restrict stock access to water. It decreases water catchments due to increased transpiration resulting in a loss of trees and native vines, which in turn leads to a loss of biodiversity and habitat.
    Description
    Cryptostegia grandiflora, is a self supporting, scrambling, many-stemmed vine that grows to 2 metres tall with long trailing whips. A milky sap oozes from stems, leaves and seedpods when cut or broken. Leaves are dark green and glossy, 6-10cm long, 3-5cm wide and in opposite pairs. Roots have been found at a depth of 13 metres in mine shafts. Roots of seedlings are twice as long as shoots. The growth form of the vine differs depending on the surrounding conditions. They can form dense canopies of overpapping plants with long whips, form towers upto 30mts high the height of native trees and grow as freestanding shrubs in the absence of other vegetation. Flowers are large and showy, with five white to light purple petals in a funnel shape. The seedpods are rigid, 10-12cm long, 3-4cm wide and grow in pairs at the end of a short stalk. The flowers resemble those of the purple Allamanda (Allamanda violacea) (PIER, 2003).
    Occurs in:
    agricultural areas, natural forests, planted forests, range/grasslands, riparian zones, ruderal/disturbed, scrub/shrublands, water courses, wetlands
    Habitat description
    Cryptostegia grandiflora is an aggressive woody climbing shrub which is capable of growing over trees up to 30m high. Plants are common in disturbed situations where there is temporary or permanent water, such as along gullies, rivers, creeks, waterholes and in saltmarsh areas (Marohasy and Forster, 1991. In PIER, 2003). It found growing in dry forest, roadsides, moist forest, rainforest openings at low elevations (PIER, 2003).
    General impacts
    Cryptostegia grandiflora forms impenetrable thickets and smothers vegetation resulting in a loss of trees and native vines which in turn leads to a loss of biodiversity and habitat, (CSIRO Australia, 2001). C. grandiflora is poisonous to stock when consumed and its rampant growth may restrict stock access to water points reducing productivity and pasture production, (WA, Department of Agriculture).
    Uses
    Ornamental
    Geographical range
    Native range: Madagascar.
    Known introduced range: Commonwealth of the Northern Mariana Islands (Saipan), Cook Islands (Rarotonga, ‘Atiu, Mangaia, Penrhyn (cult.)), Fiji, Guam, Hawai‘i, Marshall Islands (Kwajalein (cult.)), New Caledonia (Voh, Gatope). Australia, Southeast Asia, Mauritius. Reported to be present by the Cook Islands Natural Heritage Project.
    Introduction pathways to new locations
    Agriculture: Introduced for cultivation in India to produce a poor quality rubber latex, (WA, Department of Agriculture).
    For ornamental purposes: Initially introduced to Australia as an ornamental species, (CSIRO Australia, 2001).
    Ignorant possession:
    Internet sales/postal services: http://www.rareflora.com/cryptostegiagran.htm
    Road vehicles (long distance):
    Transportation of domesticated animals:


    Local dispersal methods
    Agriculture (local):
    Escape from confinement: Escaped from cultivation, (WA, Department of Agriculture).
    For ornamental purposes (local): Cultivated as an ornamental plant because of its showy flowers and hardiness, (WA, Department of Agriculture).
    Off-road vehicles:
    On animals: Seeds may be carried longer distances by stock, (WA, Department of Agriculture).
    On animals (local): Seed have long silky hairs allowing them to be carried short distances by the wind, (WA, Department of Agriculture).
    Translocation of machinery/equipment (local): Seeds may be carried longer distances by vehicles or machinery, (WA, Department of Agriculture).
    Water currents: Seeds can float in salt water for up to 40 days, and may still remain 60% viable after this.
    Management information
    Preventative measures: A Risk assessment of Cryptostegia grandiflora for Australia was prepared by Pacific Island Ecosystems at Risk (PIER) using the Australian risk assessment system (Pheloung, 1995). The result is a score of 16 and a recommendation of: reject the plant for import (Australia) or species likely to be a pest (Pacific).

    The Rubber vine management manual includes a comprehensive range of techniques for controlling rubber vine, and a selection of case studies demonstrating landholder approaches and experiences. Several of the landholder case studies indicate that controlling rubber vine would have been easier if they had taken steps to remove it before it ‘took off’. Maintaining good pasture competition is also beneficial in preventing the establishment and spread of rubber vine.

    The Weed Control Methods Handbook provides you with detailed information about the tools and techniques available for controlling invasive plants, or weeds, in natural areas. This Handbook is divided into eight chapters, covering a range of different control methods: manual, mechanical, promoting competition from native plants, grazing, biocontrol, herbicides, prescribed fire, solarization, flooding, and other, more novel, techniques. Each control method has advantages and disadvantages in terms of its effects against the target weed(s), impacts to untargeted plants and animals, risks to human health and safety, and costs.

    Nutrition
    Prefers high levels of soil moisture for rapid growth, and subsequently is often found bordering rivers, (WA, Department of Agriculture). However roots have been known to grow up to 13m deep allowing growth even in arid conditions.
    Reproduction
    Wind- and water-dispersed seeds. Seeds form in large pods about 15cm long which are often found in pairs, joined at the base. Each pod contains numerous seeds, each seed has a tuft of long white silky hairs. (WA, Department of Agriculture).
    It can produce more than 8000 seeds in a single reproductive episode and can set seed at least twice per year. More than 90% of seeds will germinate within 10 days of moisture becoming available (Grice 1996). Each seed pod produces 340-840 seeds, and seeds can float in salt water for up to 40 days, and may still remain 60% viable after this.
    Lifecycle stages
    Cryptostegia grandiflora produces seeds that last more than 12 months in the soil (Grice, 1996). Plants begin reproducing at about 200 days (CSIRO Australia, 2001).
    Reviewed by: Dr Wayne Vogler. Weed Scientist Tropical Weeds Research Centre, Dept. Natural Resources and Mines, Queensland Australia
    Compiled by: IUCN SSC Invasive Species Specialist Group
    Updates with support from the Overseas Territories Environmental Programme (OTEP) project XOT603, a joint project with the Cayman Islands Government - Department of Environment
    Last Modified: Monday, 4 October 2010


ISSG Landcare Research NBII IUCN University of Auckland