Taxonomic name: Adenanthera pavonina L.
Synonyms: Adenanthera gersenii Scheffer, Adenanthera polita Miq
Common names: arbre collier (French-Reunion (La Réunion)), bead tree (English), bois de condori (French), bois noir de Bourbon (French), bois noir rouge (French-Reunion (La Réunion)), carolina (Portuguese-Brazil), colales (Guam), coral bean tree (English), culalis (Guam), false wili wili (English), falso-sândalo (Portuguese-Brazil), kaikes (Pohnpei), kolales (Guam), kulales (Guam), kulalis (Guam), la'aulopa (American Samoa), lera (Fiji), lerendamu (Fiji), lopa (American Samoa), metekam (Kosrae), metkam (Kosrae), metkem (Kosrae), mwetkwem (Kosrae), olho-de-pavão (Portuguese-Brazil), paina (French Polynesia), peacock flower-fence (English), peacock tree, pitipitio (French Polynesia), pomea (Fiji), red bead tree (English), red sandalwood tree (English), segavé (Portuguese-Brazil), telengtúngd (Palau), telentundalel (Palau), vaivai (Fiji), vaivainivavalangi (Fiji)
Organism type: tree
A medium-sized tree up to 15m high, Adenanthera pavonina is native to India and Malaysia. It has been planted extensively throughout the tropics as an ornamental and has become naturalised in many countries. It invades intact, undisturbed hardwood forests as well as disturbed sites and can quickly form large colonies.
coastland, natural forests, ruderal/disturbed
Adenanthera pavonina prefers neutral to slightly acidic soils but will grow on a variety of soils in moist and seasonally moist tropical climates. It is common throughout the lowland tropics up to 300-400 m. Optimal plant growth occurs in areas with precipitation ranging between 3000-5000mm.
Adenanthera pavonina invades intact, undisturbed hardwood forests as well as disturbed sites and can quickly form large colonies.
Cultivated as an ornamental; Adenanthera pavonina is used for food, medecine, furniture, and fuelwood. The bright-red seeds are used for ornaments and sometimes for food. In the Caribbean, the bright red seeds produced by this tree are known as "jumbie" beads. They are also called "Circassian" seeds. Also, a red dye obtained from the wood is used by Brahmins to mark religious symbols on their forehead.
Adenanthera pavonina is reported to be very invasive in American Samoa and widespread on Kosrae.
Native range: South eastern Asia, India, Malaysia (Lorenzi, 2003).
Known introduced range: American Samoa, Commonwealth of the Northern Mariana Islands, Federated States of Micronesia, Kosrae, Pohnpei, outer Caroline Islands, Fiji, French Polynesia, Guam, Hawai‘i, Marshall Islands, Nauru, Niue, Palau, Papua New Guinea, Samoa, Solomon Islands, Swains Island, Tonga, Australia, Indonesia, Peninsular Malaysia, Philippines, Taiwan, Vietnam, Christmas Island, Aldabra, Comoro Is., Maldives, Mauritius, Moluccas, La Réunion, Rodrigues, Seychelles.
Introduction pathways to new locations
For ornamental purposes:
Local dispersal methods
Agriculture (local): Adenanthera pavonina is widely cultivated. (PIER, 2003).
Consumption/excretion: Birds disperse the seeds into natural areas from nearby cultivated specimens.
Preventative measures: A Risk Assessment of
Adenanthera pavonina for Hawai‘i and other Pacific islands was prepared by Dr. Curtis Daehler (UH Botany) with funding from the Kaulunani Urban Forestry Program and US Forest Service. The alien plant screening system is derived from Pheloung et al. (1999) with minor modifications for use in Pacific islands (Daehler et al. 2004). The result is a score of 7 and a recommendation of: "Likely to cause significant ecological or economic harm in Hawai‘i and on other Pacific Islands as
determined by a high WRA score, which is based on published sources describing species biology and behaviour in Hawai‘i and/or
ther parts of the world."
Adenanthera pavonina reproduces by seed, trees produce large quantities of seed.
Compiled by: IUCN/SSC Invasive Species Specialist Group (ISSG)
Last Modified: Thursday, 23 March 2006